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Bio Chapter 10

Mitosis and Meiosis

What is the G1 phase? Cell Growth
How do cells stop growing? Telomeres get too short
What is chromatin? Complex of chromosomes and protein
What is a chromatid? DNA strand in the duplicated chromosome
What is metaphase? Chromosomes are lined up in the middle of the cell
What is telophase II? Nuclear membrane forms around each cluster of chromosomes
What is mitosis? Division of the nucleus
What makes cells grow? Cyclin
What does a chromosome look like? An X shape
What is a tetrad? 4 part structure made of homologous chromosomes
What is the end result of meiosis? 4 haploid daughter cells
What is cyclin? Protein that regulates the cell cycle
What is apoptosis? Programmed cell death
What is a tumor? Cancer cells form a mass of cells
What is a zygote? Fertilized egg made from a sperm and egg
Without seeing a doctor how can you recognize if you might be developing cancer? lumps, moles, warts, freckles, change in bowel, unusual bleeding or discharge, sores that don't heal, trouble swallowing, enlargement or mass in the breast
What is meiosis? Division of sex cells
What is cancer? Uncontrolled division of abnormal cells, cells that don't respond to the signals that regulate their growth, form masses, and can break away from the mass and disrupt the normal activity of other cells
What are the phases of the cell cycle? G1, S, G2, M
What is the G2 phase? Period after DNA replication; when the cell prepares for division
What is the S phase? DNA synthesis; chromosomes duplicate and divide to form identical sister chromatids
What is the M phase? Mitosis
What are the parts of mitosis? Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
How are cancer cells different from other cells? They don't respond to the signals that regulate the growth of most cells
What controls cell growth? Cell cycle, cyclin, growth factors
What is a diploid? 2N; 46 chromosomes
What is a haploid? 1N; 23 chromosomes
What is crossing over? Exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes
What is crossing over important? Genetic variation
What is the end result of mitosis? 2 identical daughter cells
What is cell division? Process by which a cell divides forming two new daughter cells
What is asexual reproduction? Two cells produced by cell division are genetically identical to the cell that produced them
What is sexual reproduction? Fusion of two separate parent cells
What is reproduction? Formation of new individuals
What are chromosomes? Genetic information that is package of DNA
What is the cell cycle? Series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
What is interphase? Period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
What is cytoknsis? Division of the cytoplasm
What is a centromere? Area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
What are centrioles? Tiny paired structures located in the centrosome
What is prophase? First and longest phase of mitosis; the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the chromosomes become visible
What is anaphase? Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
What is telophase? After the chromosome separates, the cell seals off, final phase of mitosis
What are growth factors? Stimulate the growth and division of cells
What is cancer? Disorder in which some of the body's cells lose the ability to control growth
What is an embryo? Living things pass through a developmental stage
What is differentiation? Process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
What are stem cells? Unspecialized cells that retain the ability to become a wide variety of specialized cells
What does homologous mean? Cells that are the same
What is prophase II? Chromosomes become visible and each chromosome consists of two identical chromatids
What is metaphase II? Chromosomes line up at the equator
What is anaphase II? Sister chromatids separate at opposite ends of the cell
What does iPS mean? Induced Plurpotent Stem Cells
What is meant by a STAP cell? Differentiated cells turned back into stem cells by stressing them
Why is iPS better than hES? iPS can be taking from adult cells while hES is killing an embryo
To make a functioning red blood cell from a blood stem cell what must be removed and added to the cell? Hemoglobin must be added and all of the cell organelles must be removed
What does multipotent mean? Adult cells
What does totipotent mean? Able to do everything, to develop into any type of cell in the body
What does blastocyst mean? Hollow balls of cells with a cluster of cells inside known as the inner cell mass
What does pluripotent mean? Can develop into any of body's cell types
What happens when cancer cells are ignored? Cells will continue to duplicate and form a tumor
What is the difference between a chromosome and a chromatid? A chromatid is one half of a replicated chromosome, where as a chromosome consists of DNA wrapped around proteins in an organized manner
What represents a sex cell? Gametes cells
How does a tetrad form? When duplicated chromsomes, composed of two identical chromatids, pair up and compleye the process of crossing over
Created by: 23bruern
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