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Ch 17 CNS

Biology of Drugs

Central Nervous System: What is it? Physically: brain and spinal cord Functionally: autonomous, self-organizing, multi-level information processing and control system
4 Major Cell Types Neuron, Microglia, Oligodendrocytes, and Astrocytes
Neuron Primary information communication, synthesis, and storage cell
Microglia Specialized immune cells in the brain
Oligodendrocytes Provide insulation for fast electrical transmission
Astrocytes Support cells provide metabolic support, cleans up synapse, regulate blood flow, releases immune signaling, etc.
Neurotransmitters are defined by: 1) presynaptic presence 2) release initiated by calcium dependent depolarization 3) postsynaptic presence of a specific receptor
Metabolic Receptors When neurotransmitter binds it secondary messenger signaling is activated (ex. G-protein coupled receptor, receptor tyrosine kinase )
Ionotropic Receptors When neurotransmitter binds it pore/channel is opened which permits the passage of certain ions. (ex. Na+,K+,Ca2+ and/or Cl-) (ex. NMDA, AMPA, and Kainate Receptor)
Electric Cells: Diffusion Concentration Gradient is? the process of particles (dye/ions) moving through a solution or gas from an area with a higher number of particles to an area with a lower number of those particles
Electric Cells: pumps and channels Neurons create gradients across the membrane using ion pumps/transporters and channels
Action Potential 1 Gradient and voltage is set by pumping out of the cell Na+ (3 ions) in K+(2 ions)
Action Potential 2 Neurotransmitter is released and binds opening ligand gated ion channels positively charged ions flow in the postsynaptic neuron
Action Potential 3 At an elevated voltage Voltage-gated sodium channels sodium flows in. Goes from -70 to -55.
Action Potential 4 At an more elevated voltage Voltage-gated potassium channels open potassium flows out
Action potential propagation Saltatory conduction uses myelination of the axon interrupted by nodes of Ranvier where the action potential is regenerated.
Presynaptic Release 2 An action potential invades the presynaptic terminal.
Presynaptic Release 3 Depolarization of presynaptic terminal causes opening of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels
Presynaptic Release 4 Influx of Ca2+ through channels
Presynaptic Release 5 Ca2+ causes vesicles to fuse with presynaptic membrane
Presynaptic Release 6 Transmitter is released into synaptic cleft via exoxytosis
Neurotransmitter Reuptake -Neurotransmitter is released from receptor -Neurotransmitter is taken up by glial and presynaptic neuron transporter -Neurotransmitter is either broken down or repackaged into vesicle
The Neuron Store and send info Receive and send signals primarily through chemical synapses (some populations also use electrical synapses)
Astrocytes/Astroglia -Provides metabolic support -Regulate blood flow -Remove neurotransmitters from the synapse -Buffers glutamate -Plays a role in mediating restorative properties sleep -Release inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines
Microglia Resident macrophages of the brain (immune cells) -Detect damage and respond to inflammatory signaling -Prune synapses -Envelope dead/dying cells
Oligodendrocytes Insulating cells Wrap neuron axons in myelin (fatty) sheaths to permit fast transmission of electrical activity though the cells Myelinated tracts are known as ‘white matter’ in the brain
Oligodendrocytes One oligodendrocyte can extend processes to ~50 axons Myelination occurs throughout development and may not be finished until ~25-30 years of age in the frontal lobes
Brainstem Composed of the midbrain, pons, and medulla
Cerebellum: What does it do? -Fine movements -Balance -Coordination -Posture -Motor learning
Hypothalamus Important for maintaining homeostasis in the body **Example! Encounter antibodies Fever + sickness behavior
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