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bio quiz

cell structure and functions

What are the three parts of the cell theory? All living things are composed of 1 or more cells The cell is the basic unit of structure, physiology, and organization in living things Every cell arises from a pre-existing cell
What are the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? A prokaryotic cell Lack a true nucleus Unenclosed (usually circular chromosome) Lack membrane-bound organelles
What structures make up prokaryotic cells ribosomes cell membrane thylakoids nucleoid cytoplasm plasmids cell wall capsule flagella DNA
what structures make up eukaryotic cells nucleus nuclear envelope DNA Nucleolus Cytoplasm cell membrane cell wall mitochondria lysosomes ribosomes flagella vacuoles and vesicules cytoskeleton chloroplasts centrosomes peroxisomes ER golgi apparatus
ribosomes in prokaryotic Small bodies within the cell Involved in protein synthesis Suspended in the cytoplasm
cell membrane in prokaryotic Encloses the cell Barrier and recognition of other cells Controls what substances enter/leave the cell
Thylakoids in prokaryotic Found in photosynthetic prokaryotic cells Facilitates photosynthesis
Nucleoid in prokaryotic Region where DNA is located DNA coiled up (single circular chromosome) DNA in direct contact with cytoplasm No membrane
cytoplasm in prokaryotic Gel-like component that contains subcellular structures
plasmids in prokaryotic Small, circular DNA molecules Fewer genes than nucleoids DNA strand DNA found here is not needed for normal cell functioning Confers useful properties
cell wall in prokaryotic Protects the cell Gives the cell shape
capsule in prokaryotic Outer covering Hard coat that retains moisture Prevents bacteria from being engulfed and destroyed
flagella in prokaryotic Propels the cell
nucleus in eukaryotic Present in all eukaryotic cells Houses the cell’s DNA Has it’s own membrane: nuclear envelope Is the control center of the cell Occupies up to 20% of the cell
nuclear envelope in eukaryotic Membrane connected to ER Contains craters (nuclear pores) on surface, that control what enters/leaves nucleus
dna in euklaryotic Organized on chromosomes (DNA, proteins, some RNA → chromatin)
nucleolus in eukaryotic Center of nucleus Rich in RNA Where ribosomes are made
cytoplasm in eukaryotic Composed primarily of cytosol Contains cytoskeleton Organelles found here 3 functions performed here: Food converted to energy Energy stored Manufacturing
cell membrane in eukaryotic Controls what can enter/leave cell Made up of phospholipid molecules which form the outer barrier of the cell
cell wall in eukaryotic Protects the cell Gives the cell shape
mitochondria in eukaryotic Power houses Oblong, ovoid organelles Breakdown food and nutrients → energy Contain their own DNA Self-replicate
lysosomes in eukaryotic Vesicles that contain digestive enzymes that breakdown & digest molecules
ribosomes in eukaryotic Production of proteins Scattered on rough ER
flagella in eukaryotic Propel the cell
Vacuoles & vesicles in eukaryotic Fluid filled structures enclosed within a membrane Used for storage & transport Some store nutrients, water and waste products
cytoskeleton in eukaryotic microscopic network of protein filaments and tubules that are constantly forming and dissolving (microfilaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments) Found in the cytoplasm Gives the cell shape and coherence
chloroplast in eukaryotic Produce sugars and starches via photosynthesis Chlorophyll traps light energy Possesses its own DNA and can self-replicate
centrosomes in eukaryotic Small cylindrical structures Involved in regulation of cell division Composed of 2 centrioles
peroxisomes in eukaryotic Small, membrane-enclosed organelles Contain enzymes involved in metabolic reactions Contain large amounts of hydrogen peroxide from breaking down fatty acids and toxic substances (alcohol)
endoplasmic reticulum (er) Network of folded membranes Continuous with outer membrane of nuclear envelope Works with Golgi Apparatus Rough = ribosomes Site of protein synthesis Smooth = lacks Produces lipids, detoxifies chemicals, transports materials throughout the cell
golgi apparatus Processes and packages macromolecules Modifies and packages proteins from the ER and sends them to other parts of the cell multiple layers On rim, bubble-like packages from (vesicles) and move up layers and modify until top layer
What are the differences between plant and animal cells? plant cells have chloroplasts, cell wall, no L or P, square and rigid, limited movement, one large vacuole animals cells no cwl or c have lysosomes and perxosomes contains cilia a/o flagella many shapes cells can move around has small vacoules
Similarities of Plant and Animal Cells Cytoplasm Nucleus Cell membrane Ribosomes
plant cells organelles Mitochondria Rough ER (ribosomes) Smooth ER Golgi Apparatus Peroxisomes Central Vacuole Chloroplast
animal cell organelles Mitochondria Centrosome Rough ER (ribosomes) Smooth ER Golgi Apparatus Peroxisomes Vacuoles Lysosomes
What is the role of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells? Powerhouse of cell: Supply energy to cell Cellular respiration = process by which mitochondria breakdown food molecules to produce ATP (phosphorylation of ADP)
What is the structure and function of the cell membrane? Separates inside of cell fromenvironment made of double-layer of phos. Proteins in bilayer guide things that go in/out Phospholipid made of head/2 tails Head hydrophilic fuse with membranes of other cells transport cytoplasm, water, organelles, wastes
Ion Channel proteins that control flow of ions into and out of the cell through passive transport (no chemical energy)
ion pump proteins that transport ions against their electrochemical gradient through active transport (requires chemical energy)
Particles can move across the cell membrane 3 ways: Passive diffusion Facilitated diffusion Active transport
stem bacteria some good (animalis) microbiologist Study cells at the molecular level Develop vaccines, genetic basis of a disease, genetic code of an organism, genetic modification, forensic investigations with DNA
arstotle Aristotle (334 B.C.) - classified all known organisms as plant or animal
janssen Janssen (1595) - produced first compound microscope
robert hooke Robert Hooke (1665) - looked at a piece of cork in a compound microscope and determined that it was made up of “small rooms” that he called cells
leeuwenhoek Leeuwenhoek (1675) - observed living cells (bacteria) through a simple microscope
robert brown Robert Brown (1833) - botanist that said every plant is made of cells and inside there’s a dark blob-like structure → nucleus
schwann adn schleiden Schwann (1839) & Schleiden (1838) - all animals are composed of cells and all plants are made of cells. Cells are the basic building blocks of life
perkin Perkin (1856) - developed an intense purple dye used to stain microscope slides (shows more details)
virchow Virchow (1858) - German physician that said The cells of plants and animals must come from previously existing cells
porter Porter (1945) - named Endoplasmic Reticulum; advanced the study of organelles in cells using electron microscopy
Which of the following functions is the cytoskeleton not directly involved in? cellular respiration
When a phospholipid bilayer forms in water, what can you conclude about the arrangement of the phospholipids? all tails are pointed inward
What is one function of the cell membrane? regulates which materials enter and leave
A protein transports an ion across the cell membrane against its concentration gradient. Which of the following must be true? the ion pump is using active transport
Created by: rees417