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Immunology Lecture 8

What are the two components of the lymphatic system? 1) lymphatic vessels and 2) lymphoid tissues and organs
What are the main functions of the lymphatic system? Transports fluids back to the blood, plays an essential role in body defense & resistance to disease, and absorbs digested fat at the intestinal villi
What materials from the lymph is returned to the blood? water, proteins and blood cells
What are the defense cells within the lymph nodes? macrophages and lymphocytes
What are the functions of the spleen? Filters blood, Destroys worn out blood cells, Forms blood cells in the fetus, Acts as a blood reservoir
What are peyers patches? Small accumulations of lymphoid tissues in the wall of the intestines
What are some key features of the adaptive immunity? Antigen specific, Systemic (not restricted to initial infection site), and has memory
What is the main reason our body rejects donor transplants? It does not recognize the antigens on the cells as self antigens and attacks the tissue
Where do the B cells become immunocompetent? the T cells? B cells - bone marrow, T cells - thymus
What do lymphocytes originate from? hemocytoblasts in the red bone marrow
What is the main way cytotoxic T cells kill their target? Insert a toxic chemical to poke hole in the cell membrane (perforin)
What do regulatory T cells do? Release chemicals to suppress the activity of T and B cells and stop the immune response to prevent uncontrolled activity
What is the main receptor that helps immune cells to "see" inside a cell and recognize antigens? Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
What is another term for Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)? HLA (human leukocyte antigen)
What cells have MHC class I? All cells
What does the MHC bind to in a general sense? TCR (T cell receptor)
What is the TCR similar to? similar to the Fab portion of antibodies since it has constant and variable regions and VDJ recombination
What are the two main subunits on the TCR? alpha and beta subunits
What other co-receptors are associated with the TCR? CD3, CD4 and CD8
When a MHC class binds to a TCR, what specificities must be met for successful activation of a T cell? Must have correct co-receptor (CD4 or CD8, depending on MHC class 1 or 2), and must be specific for the antigen that is presented on the MHC
What happens if a TCR binds to the wrong MHC class? What happens if it binds to the right MHC class, but it is not specific for that antigen? 1) T cell dies, 2) T cell lives but is not activated
MHC class I binds to what cell? cytotoxic T cell (CD8 co-receptor)
MHC class II binds to what cell? helper T cell (CD4 co-receptor)
What cells have MHC class II? antigen presenting cells
What is a autograft? tissue transplanted from one site to another on the same person
What is a isograft? tissue grafts from an identical person (identical twin)
What is a allograft? tissue taken from an unrelated person
What is a xenograft? tissue taken from a different animal species
What are the ideal donors? What graft will never be successful? autografts and isografts are ideal, and xenografts are never successful
What happens to your immune system from HIV? HIV attaches to CD4 receptors of T helper cells, eventually causing them to die. Thus, as the T helper cells get too low in numbers to signal the adaptive immune system for efficient killing, the person will eventually die of a secondary infection
What is phase I of AIDS progression? How long is it? few weeks to a few years; flu like symptoms, swollen lymph nodes, chills, fever, fatigue, body aches. Virus is multiplying, antibodies are made but ineffective for complete virus removal
What is phase II of AIDs progression? How long is it? within six months to 10 years; opportunistic infections present, Helper T cells affected, 5% may not progress to next phase
What is phase III of AIDs progression? Helper T cells fall below 200 per cubic millimeter of blood AND the person has an opportunistic infection or type of cancer. May include pneumonia, meningitis, tuberculosis, encephalitis, Kaposi’s sarcoma, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma...
What happens in autoimmune diseases? The immune system does not distinguish between self and nonself; the body produces antibodies and sensitized T lymphocytes that attack its own tissues
Created by: VCOM2013