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Cells

Cells and what they are. For the 7th grade

TermDefinition
Cell the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.
Microscope an optical instrument used for viewing very small objects, such as mineral samples or animal or plant cells, typically magnified several hundred times.
Organelle any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
Cell wall(Plant) a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher plants it consists mainly of cellulose.
Cell Membrane the semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.
Cytoplasm the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
Nucleus a dense organelle present in most eukaryotic cells, typically a single rounded structure bounded by a double membrane, containing the genetic material.
Mitochondrion an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers (cristae).
Chloroplast (in green plant cells) a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
Vacuole a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid.
Selectively Permeable Selective permeability is a property of cellular membranes that only allows certain molecules to enter or exit the cell.
Diffusion the intermingling of substances by the natural movement of their particles.
Osmosis a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.
EndoCytosis Endocytosis is the process of actively transporting molecules into the cell by engulfing it with its membrane.
ExoCytosis a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.
Cell Cycle The cell cycle is a cycle of stages that cells pass through to allow them to divide and produce new cells.
Interphase the resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis.
Replication the process by which genetic material or a living organism gives rise to a copy of itself.
Mitosis a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
Cytokinesis the cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.
Tissue Tissue is a cellular organisational level between cells and a complete organ.
Organ a part of an organism that is typically self-contained and has a specific vital function, such as the heart or liver in humans.
Organ System An organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions
Stimulus a thing or event that evokes a specific functional reaction in an organ or tissue.
Gland an organ in the human or animal body which secretes particular chemical substances for use in the body or for discharge into the surroundings.
Hormone a regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood or sap to stimulate specific cells or tissues into action.
Stress pressure or tension exerted on a material object.
Created by: Julian Mcke