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Session 2 Microbio8

Microbio -8- Parasitology and pathogenic parasites

how to parasites live and get there food source use the resources of their host they live on for their own growth and maintenance
what type of parasite are most of the disease producing parasites most are obligate parasites requiring vertebrae host
what branch of life does parasitology focus on eukaryotic infectious agents
What are the single celled eukaryotes that are not fungi called that can be parasites protozoa
What are the multicelled eukaryotes called that can be parasites metozoa- helminiths, arthropods, molluscs
Apart from being a parasite what other problem can arthropods and molluscs be for vertebrates they can be the vector of transmission of other parasites or diseases
How are protozoans classified classified according to organelle of locomotion and how they reproduce
these protozoans move by pseudopods and use normal binary fission to reproduce rhizopods (amoebas)
these protozoans move by cilia and reproduce using transverse binary fission ciliates
protozoans that use flagella for locomotion and reproduce through longitudinal binary fission flagellates
protozoans that have no mode of locomotion and reproduce through schizogony/sporogony sporozoa
type of flagellate that has one or two flagella and a single mitochondrion that extends the length of the cell give examples of this flagellate kinetoplastid- examples are trypanosoma brucei (sleeping sickness, trypanosoma cruzi (chagas disease) and leishmania spp. leishmaniasis
E. histolytica and acanthamoeba rhizopods amoebas
G. Lamblia, T vaginalis flagellates
Plasmodium spp. and T gondii sporozoa
B. Coli ciliates
T. Cruzi and L. donovani kinetoplastids
since most protozoans divinde by binary fission how is it that they can also have a sexual reproduction the gametes can fuse and undergo chromosomal recombination
how are helminths classified classified based on body and alimenatary tract configuration, reproductive systems, number of intermediate hosts
what are the characteristics of nematodes spinle shaped segmented body with suckers, separate sexes, tubular alimentary tract, and variable # of intermediate hosts
what are the characteristics of cestodes head with oral and ventral suckers, hemaphroditic sexes, no alimentary tract, and one intermediate host
what are the characteristics of trematodes leaf shaped with suckers, hermaphroditic sexes except shistosoma which has seperate, blind alimentary tract and two intermediate hosts except shistosoma which has one intermediate host
pin worm, round worm, woucherarria spp. and loa loa are all nematodes
pork tapeworm is a cestode
schistosoma, liver fluke and E. granulosus are all trematodes
what is the host animal on or within which a parasite can establish infection
what is the definitive host host through which the parasite completes its adult phase or sexual reproduction phase of its life
what is the intermediate host host through which a parasite must pass its larval stage through or asexual phase of its life cycle
what is the vector for trypanosomiasis tsetse fly
what is the vetor for chagas disease Riduviid bug
what is the vector for malaria, filaria mosquito
what is the vector for leishmaniasis phlebotomous sandfly
vector for loa loa (eyeworm) crysops fly
vector for babesiosis tick
what is the typical life cycle for a parasite egg -> larval stage -> mature worm -> mating
unlike bacterial and viral infections that generally present as acute syndromes how do parasitic infections present as chronic or long term syndromes
how can the host deal with parasite infections attack with innate immunity, acquired immunity response, sequestration, sequester nutrient to starve the parasite or no harm no fowl and let the little buggers live as long as they play nice
Time from the acquisition of infection to appearance of symptoms can be hours to years incubation
period between infection with parasite and demonstration of parasite in body especially as oocytes or eggs in blood or feces. prepatent period
period of time in the parasite infection where organism can be demonstrated to be in the body no need for symptoms though patent period
what factors aid the spread and prevalence of parasite infections 1 poor sanitation 2 failure of sanitation measures 3 contact with symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers 4 animal to human transmission 5 presence of appropriate vector 6 long incubation/latency periods
what is two parasites that kill alot of people worldwide each year malaria, and roundworm and hookworm infestations
How can you dx a parasitic infection eosinophilia detailed history- travel food intak, socioeconimic status finding parasite evidence- eggs, larva, trophozoites and cyst in stool, urine, blood, tissues
how can serologic tests help dx parasitic infection detect high levels of IgG in serum or detect Ag in blood of the parasites
Antiparasitic drug that interferes with nucleic acid synthesis or carbohydrate metabolism antiprotozoan drugs
drugs taht compromise worms glycolytic pathways or neuromuscular function antihelminthic drugs
since we are eukaryotes and so are the parasites how do we have drugs that harm them and not us target the drugs to their preferential uptake, metabolic alteration only they can make or target them at the site where they are at
what are the characteristics of a good chemotherapeutic agent to use against parasites effective in a single dose easily administered safe to dispense w/o medical supervision inexpensive to use worldwide
what are the major problems with parasitic infections they are chronic and don't get sterile cure parasites becoming resistant to drugs complex life cycles and ability to modulate immune response has made making vaccines hard many parasite are sub clinical or asymptomatic so you get carriers as resevoirs
Created by: smaxsmith