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Chapter 8

PBSC CHROMOSOMES & CELL DIVISION BSC1005 259323 CONCEPTS IN BIOLOGY

QuestionAnswer
This monosomy occurs in females which have only one X chromosome. Turner Syndrome
The portion of mitosis that includes: chromosomes re-condensing, a new nuclear envelope forms for each cell; cytokinesis occurs here also. Telophase
The total number of chromosomes in a diploid human cell. 46
The term for cells having half the normal number of chromosomes. Haploid
The nuclear division mechanism which results in hapoid (1/2 the chromosome number) cells for reproduction meiosis
Females have the following sex chromosomes _______. XX
True or False? The father determines the sex of the offspring in humans. True
Another name for sex cells (eggs & sperm): Gametes
Non-disjunction is a failure of chromosomes to separate during _____. Meiosis
What is the numerical representation for any diploid number of chromosomes? 2n
The term for cells having two chromosomes of each type. Diploid
Total number of chromosomes in a human diploid cell. 46
The nuclear division mechanism which results in clones for growth and development. mitosis
2n + 1 conditions due to non-disjunction are called a _____. Trisomy
Chromosome pairs which are the same type (shape, number, same genes). Homologous
The division of the cytoplasm which occurs during telophase is called _______. Cytokinesis
The phase of interphase when the DNA is replicated, is known as _______. Synthesis - S
What percentage of the cell's life cycle is spent in Interphase? 90%
The division of the cytoplasm in animal cells (during telophase). Cleavage Furrow
A ball of cells resulting from uncontrolled growth. Tumor
The region of the duplicated chromosome where the sister chromatids are joined. Centromere
This is another name for Down's Syndrome. Trisomy 21
2n - 1 conditions due to non-disjunction are called a _____. Monosomy
All chromosomes which are NOT sex chromosomes are called _____. autosomes
How many chromosomes in a human gamete (egg or sperm)? 23
The "arms and legs" of the chromosome (X shaped) Chromatids
The total number of chromosome pairs in a diploid human cell. 23
This is an organized display of chromosomes in a duplicated state. Karyotype
Explain how crossover occurs? (Between what portions of chromosomes) Non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes
The division of the cytoplasm in plant cells (during telophase). Cell Plate
The nuclear division mechanism whereby the daugher cells are haploid. Meiosis
This syndrome occurs in males with the XXY genotype. Klinefelter
The portion of mitosis wherein the chromosomes line up at the spindle equator. Metaphase
The portion of mitosis wherein the sister chromatids are separated and each is pulled toward an opposite pole. Anaphase
Males have the following sex chromosomes _______. XY
What is the purpose of crossover during meiosis? Genetic Mixing (Recombination)
What is the purpose of meiosis (producing gametes)? Sexual reproduction
Genes which have the potential to cause cancer (usually genes which are associated with cell growth). Oncogenes
The G1 phase of interphase stands for _______. Growth or GAP
This 2n + 1 condition is due to a third copy of chromosome #21. Down Syndrome
Malignant tumor cells that break off from the primary tumor and form new tumors at distant sites. Metastasis
Compared to mitosis, how many stages of meiosis are there? Eight (4 -PMAT I and 4 PMAT II)
The portion of mitosis wherein the DNA condenses and two poles are established. Prophase
What is the numerical representation for any haploid number of chromosomes? n
DNA which is complexed with proteins. Chromosomes
Chemicals or radiation that can damage DNA. Mutagens