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Ch 14 epidemiology

Ch 14: Infection, Infectious Disease, and Epidemiology

TermDefinition
ACUTE A disease in which symptoms develop rapidly but last for only a short time
CHRONIC An illness that develops slowly and is likely to continue or recur for long periods.
Amensalism A symbiotic relationship in which one symbiont is harmed while the second is neither harmed nor benefited.
Biological vectors These organisms not only transmit pathogens but also serve as hosts for the multiplication of a pathogen during some stage of its life cycle
COMMENSALISM A symbiotic relationship in which two organisms live in association and one is benefited while the other is neither benefited or harmed.
COMMUNICABLE DISEASE Any disease that can be spread from one host to another
CONTACT TRANSMISSION The spread of disease by direct or indirect contact or via droplets
CONTAGIOUS DISEASE A disease that is easily spread from one person to another.
Direct contact Transmission of infectious disease involving person-to-person spread by bodily contact.
DISEASE Any change from a state of health.
Droplet A type of contact transmission where pathogens can be transmitted during exhalation, sneezing, and coughing and travel less than 1 meter.
ENDEMIC A disease that is constantly present in a certain population
endogenous A HAI derived from normal microbiota that become opportunistic while the patient is in the health care setting
EPIDEMIC A disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time.
ETIOLOGY The study of the cause of a disease.
exogenous A HAI acquired from the health care environment, such as in air-conditioning systems or on bedrails
Fomites Inanimate objects inadvertently used to transfer pathogens
iatrogenic A HAI induced by treatment or medical procedures, such as surgery
INCIDENCE The fraction of the population that contracts a disease during a particular period of time.
incubation period The time between an infection and occurrence of the first symptoms.
Indirect contact Transmission that occurs when pathogens are spread from one host to another via fomites
INFECTION The invasion or growth of microorganisms in the body.
LATENT A disease characterized by a period of no symptoms when the pathogen is inactive.
Mechanical vectors These organisms are not required as hosts by the pathogens they transmit
morbidity An injury sufficient to interfere with normal functioning of the body, or any change from a state of health.
MUTUALISM A type of symbiosis in which both organisms or populations are benefited.
NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASE A disease that is not transmitted from one person to another.
NOSOCOMIAL An infection that develops during the course of a hospital stay and was not present at the time the patient was admitted.
OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGENS A microorganisms that does not ordinarily cause a disease but can become pathogenic under certain circumstances.
PANDEMIC An epidemic that occurs worldwide.
PARASITISM An organism that exploits a host without providing any benefit in return.
Parenteral route A means by which portals of entry can be circumvented.
PATHOGEN A disease-causing organism.
PATHOGENESIS The manner in which a disease develops.
PATHOGENICITY The ability of a microorganism to cause disease by overcoming the defenses of a host.
PATHOLOGY The scientific study of disease.
PORTAL OF ENTRY Avenue by which a pathogen gains access to the body.
PORTAL OF EXIT Route by which a pathogen leaves the body.
PREDISPOSING FACTOR Anything that makes the body more susceptible to a disease or alters the course of a disease.
PREVALENCE The fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time.
prodromal period Short time preceding illness of generalized, mild symptoms, such as malaise.
Resident Microbiota present on/in the body from birth to death.
SIGN A change due to a disease that a person can observe and measure.
SPORADIC A disease that occurs occasionally in a population.
SUBACUTE A disease with symptoms that are intermediate between acute and chronic.
SYMPTOM A change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease.
SYNDOME A specific group of signs or symptoms that accompany a disease.
Transient Microbiota living in or on the body for a limited time before disappearing.
VEHICLE Transmission of a disease by an inanimate reservoir.
Zoonosis Diseases that spread naturally from animals to humans
Created by: drmicro