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Unit 4

Genetics

TermDefinition
Cells Smallest structural, functional, and biological unit of all living organism.
Daughter Cell The result of Mitosis that results in two cells having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent cell.
Sexual Reproduction Type of reproduction by which offspring arise from two parents.
Asexual Reproduction Type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism and is produced by mitosis in which the offspring inherit the genes of only one parent.
Offspring The product of reproduction.
Genetically Identical Offspring is uniform or an exact copy of the parent.
Chromosomes Thread-like molecules that carry heredity information that are made of protein and one molecule of DNA and most have arranged pairs within the nucleus of the cell.
Gene Basic physical and functional unit of heredity which is made up of DNA.
Binary Fission Fully grown parent cell splits into two halves, producing two new cells, common in prokaryotes, and occurs in some single-celled eukaryotes.
Diverse Offspring The products of Sexual Reproduction that have a genetically unique combination of DNA from both parents.
Uniform Offspring The products of Asexual Reproduction that have genetically identical DNA from a single parent.
Unicellular Organism that is composed of only one cell.
Multicellular Organism that is composed of multiple cells working together.
Fertilization When a sperm enters an ova.
Budding Offspring grows out of the body of the parent (buds).
Heredity The transfer of traits from one generation to another generation.
Mutation A change that occurs in the DNA sequence that are essential to evolution which is the raw material of genetic variation.
Vegetative Reproduction A process by which new organisms arise without production of seeds or spores.
Fragmentation The body of the parent breaks into distinct pieces where each piece can produce an offspring.
Regeneration If a piece of a parent is detached, it can grow and develop into a completely new offspring.
Punnett Squares A diagram used by geneticists to determine the probability (chance) of an offspring having a particular phenotype.
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism.
Phenotype The appearance of an organism based on its genotype, plus environmental factors.
Allele Variants (differences) in a gene that occurs on a fixed spot on a chromosome.
Heterozygous Carries two different alleles (Bb).
Homozygous Dominant Carries two copies of the same dominant allele (BB).
Homozygous Recessive Carries two copies of the same recessive allele (bb).
Gregor Mendel The “father of modern genetics”, born in 1822, a monk, in Austria Mendel discovered the basic principles of heredity through experiments with pea plants.
Dominant Traits Traits that hide other traits when passed on to offspring, and shows its specific trait even if only one parent passed the gene to the child.
Recessive Traits Traits that get hidden by dominant traits, and shows its specific trait when both parents pass the gene to the child.
Probability A chance of something being true and can be expressed as a percentage.
Inherited Trait A characteristic or features of one organism that are inherited (passed from parent to offspring).
Heredity The transfer of traits from one generation to another generation.
Genetics The study of heredity, which is a biological process where a parent passes certain genes onto their offspring.
Chromosomes Thread-like structures that are found in the nucleus of a cell that contains all DNA, each chromosome is made of protein and a single molecule of DNA, and comes in matching sets of two.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions for all living organisms that contains the specific instructions that make each type of living creature unique, and determines how the cells in a body will function.
Acquired Traits Physical characteristic of an organism that is not passed down to offspring genetically, which is a learned trait, and is a product of the environment’s influence on the organism.
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