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Viruses and Bacteria

N gonorrhoeae Organism structure morphology Gram negative diplococci, oxidase +, catalase +, Glucose fermentation
N gonorrhoeae Epidemiology C5-9 deficiencies at high risk, sexual contact STD
N gonorrhoeae Pathogenesis & Virulence Factors Pili for non-ciliated epithelium, no capsule, IgA protease, antigenic changes in pili + OMPs, LOS and tissue damage,
N gonorrhoeae Clinical Disease STD (purulent discharge) to cause cervicitis, salpingitis, ovaritis, urethritis, PID, Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome
N gonorrhoeae Clinical Disseminated disease - purulent arthritis, pustular rash on extremities; pharyngitis, neonatal conjunctivitis
N gonorrhoeae Diagnosis Lab Diagnostics Gram stain for males. Thayer martin for females
N gonorrhoeae Treatment, Prevention, Control – Ceftriaxone
N. meningitidis Organism structure morphology Gram negative diplococci, oxidase +, catalase + Glucose and maltose fermentation
N. meningitidis Epidemiology Reservoir of nasopharynx of healthy adults; leading cause of bacterial meningitis; C5-9 deficiencies at high risk; living in close proximity; inhalation of respiratory droplets
N. meningitidis Pathogenesis & Virulence Factors Capsule, IgA protease, LOS and tissue damage
N. meningitidis Clinical Disease 90% caused by A, B, C, Y, and W135 serotypes. Meningitis, small skin petechial rash, septicemia, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (hemorrhage into adrenal- disseminated intravascular coagulation), arthritis, pneumonia
N. meningitidis Diagnosis Lab Diagnostics - agglutination test, chocolate and modified Thayer martin
N. meningitidis Treatment, Prevention, Control penicillin; rifampin or Cipro for family members; vaccine - MPSV4 (all major serotypes but B); Bexsero for serotype B
Moraxella catarrhalis Organism structure morphology Gram negative, oxidase positive, strict aerobic, diplococci
Moraxella catarrhalis Epidemiology - Lower respiratory disease in adults (elderly)
Moraxella catarrhalis Clinical Disease - Otitis media, sinusitis (children), RTI in elderly
Moraxella catarrhalis Treatment, Prevention, Control Amoxicillin-clavulanate or Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim
Moraxella catarrhalis Third most common cause of otitis media and sinusitis in children (after S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae)
Moraxella catarrhalis Lower respiratory disease in adults (elderly) with COPD
Moraxella catarrhalis Resistant to 1st-generation β-lactams, susceptible to everything else
Haemophilus influenzae B Organism structure morphology Gram negative, pleiomorphic, facultative anaerobe, coccobacilli
Haemophilus influenzae B Epidemiology Major cause of respiratory tract illness in unvaccinated
Haemophilus influenzae B Pathogenesis & Virulence Factors Capsule, invasive, IgA protease, biofilm formation, avoid phagocytosis, LOS causes tissue damage
Haemophilus influenzae B Clinical Disease Bacteremia and meningitis - Initial respiratory infection, spread from nasopharynx, Epiglottitis - children, cellulitis on cheeks or periorbital
Haemophilus influenzae B Diagnosis Lab Diagnostics Gram negative rods in CSF, sputum; agglutination test, requires factors V (NAD) and X (Hemin) - chocolate agar, supplement factors in agar, and satellite test on blood agar
Haemophilus influenzae B Treatment, Prevention, Control Ceftriaxone; 50% resistant to cillins; conjugate vaccine (non-typeable, use amox+clav or macrolides)
Bordetella pertussis Organism structure morphology Gram negative, obligate aerobe, coccobacilli
Bordetella pertussis Epidemiology Direct contact via respiratory droplets or fomites
Bordetella pertussis Pathogenesis & Virulence Factors - Adherence to ciliated cells. Tracheal cytotoxin inhibits DNA synthesis, Adenylyl cyclase toxin directly increases cAMP, Pertussis toxin (AB5) ADP-ribosylates Gαi to increase cAMP
Bordetella pertussis Clinical Disease - Sever cough, weight loss, seizures, hemorrhage
Bordetella pertussis Diagnosis Lab Diagnostics - Regan-Lowe agar or Charcoal cephalexin blood agar
Bordetella pertussis Treatment, Prevention, Control - Macrolides and Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; vaccine - CTaP (acellular pertussis - pertussis toxoid and FHA (filamentous hemagglutinin)
Legonella pneumophillia Organism structure morphology Gram negative, facultative intracellular rod, motile
Legonella pneumophillia Epidemiology - Inhalation of aerosolized contaminated water (heat, stasis, and ,aerosolization) - can survive in cold and heat
Legonella pneumophillia Pathogenesis & Virulence Factors Flagella, pili, T4SS to modify the phagosome
Legonella pneumophillia Clinical Disease Pneumonia, very high fever moth-eaten lung tissue, Popcorn X-ray
Legonella pneumophillia Diagnosis Lab Diagnostics - BCYE (buffered charcoal yeast extract) agar plus cysteine and iron; ELISA detects LPS in urine
Legonella pneumophillia Treatment, Prevention, Control - Macrolides and fluoroquinolones
Mycoplama Organism structure and morphology Facultative anaerobe, non-motile, pleiomorphic; no peptidoglycan, no cell wall, cholesterol in membrane
Mycoplama Epidemiology community acquired by respiratory droplets
Mycoplama Pathogenesis & Virulence Factors No invasion of epithelium, but attaches using a tip-like organelle, superantigen production (fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, Gulf War Syndrome, RA)
Mycoplama Clinical Disease Chronic carriage with no fever but dry coughing (walking pneumonia)
Mycoplama Diagnosis Lab Diagnostics - Cold agglutinins (anti-RBC antibodies); Fried egg colony on Eaton's agar
Treatment, Prevention, Control Macrolides
EPEC Epidemiology Pediatric disease, Children <2 y.o., Small Intestine
EPEC Symptoms Watery diarrhea, no fever or inflamation
EPEC Virulence Factors Pedestal formation, A
EPEC Pathogenesis Actin Rearrangement, M Cell Adherent, Disruption of microvilli structure-> malabsorption and diarrhea
EHEC STEC Epidemiology Outbreaks (processed meat and vegetables), Large Intestine
EHEC STEC Symptoms Hemorrhagic colitis, bloody diarrhea, Little or no fever, HUS
EHEC STEC Virulence factors Pedestal formation, A
EHEC or STEC Pathogenesis O157:H7, Disruption of microvilli structure-> malabsorption and diarrhea. Protein synthesis inhibited
EIEC Epidemiology Food borne – Rare, Large Intestine
EIEC Symptoms Severe inflammation, Fever, Mucus, blood, and PMNs
EIEC Virulence factors Invasion plasmid, T3SS - actin rearrangement, Membrane ruffling
EIEC Pathogenesis Formation of actin jet trail, Destruction of epithelial cells
ETEC Epidemiology Travelers diarrhea, Small Intestine
ETEC Symptoms Cholera-like, watery, No Fever or inflammation
ETEC Virulence factors Colonization factors (CF), STa - cGMP increase, LT - cAMP increase
ETEC Pathogenesis Impedes phagocytosis, Hyper secretion of fluids
EAEC Epidemiology Travelers and infants in developing countries, Large
EAEC Symptoms No Fever or inflammation watery Mucoid diarrhea Growth retardation
EAEC Virulence factors Aggregative adherence fimbria (AAF) EAEC heat-stable enterotoxin (like STa) Plasmid encoded toxin (pet)
EAEC Pathogenesis Staked bricks with shortening of microvilli, Exfoliation, Hyper secretion of fluids
Created by: splashgreen
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