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BIO120-Membrane

BC-Membrane Structure & Function

QuestionAnswer
The term for membranes which allow some molecules to pass through while blocking passage of other molecules. Selective Permeability
Another name for passive transport. Facilitated Diffusion
This term describes equal solute concentrations inside and outside of the cell. isotonic
When the solute concentration is less. Hypotonic
Small sacs (circles) of membrane are called _______. vesicles
This is the diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane. Osmosis
Which region of the phospholipid molecule is hydrophyllic? The Glycerol Head
Is it the proteins or the fatty acid tails which are responsible for giving the "Fluid Mosaic Model" of the plasma membrane its MOSAIC portion of the name? The insertion of the proteins.
A cell with an internal salt concentration of 0.1% salt is placed in a solution of 2% salt solution. Is the solution surrounding the cell considered hypotonic or hypertonic? The solution surrounding the cell is considered hypertonic .
Does diffusion move molecules down or up the concentration gradient? Down
The process a cell uses to bring particles into the cell by pinching off a small circle of membrane to form a vesicle enclosing the particles. Endocytosis
In a solution consisting of salt dissolved in water, which is the solute? salt
Which region of the phospholipid molecule are hydrophobic? Fatty Acid Tails
This term describes conditions when the solute concentration is greater. Hypertonic
This method of moving molecules across the membrane uses proteins embedded in the membrane, and uses ATP energy to move molecules against (up) the concentration gradient. Active Transport
A cell with an internal salt concentration of 0.1% salt is placed in a solution of 0.2% salt solution. Which way will water move, into or out of the cell? Out of the cell.
Diffusion is considered to be _______ ________ because no transport proteins are involved and no ATP energy is used. Passive Transport
Is the glycerol head of a phospholipid molecule polar or non-polar? Polar
The process whereby vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and are able to "dump" the contents to the outside of the cell. Exocytosis
A cell with an internal salt concentration of 0.3% salt is placed in a solution of 0.2% salt solution. Which way will water move, into or out of the cell? Into the cell
Hydrocarbon tails of fatty acids which are saturated will or will not pack tightly together? They will pack tightly together.
Hydrocarbon tails of fatty acids which are UNsaturated will or will not pack tightly together? They will not pack tightly together.
Which type of membrane protein is only bound to the surface of the membrane? Peripheral proteins
Which type of membrane protein penetrates into the middle of the membrane? Integral proteins
Which type of membrane protein crosses from through to the other of the membrane? Transmembrane proteins
HIV uses which types of membrane protein to attach to immune cells? CD4 and CCR-5 cell surface proteins
These membrane carbohydrates have lipids bonded to them. Glycolipids
These membrane carbohydrates have proteins bonded to them. Glycoproteins
Molecules like diatomic oxygen are _____ and _____ and can pass easily through the membrane. Nonpolar; hydrophobic
Molecules like sugars and water are _____ and _____ and cannot pass easily through the membrane. Polar; hydrophyllic
Special channel proteins known as ______ aid in the passage of water molecules through the membrane,. Aquaporins
The interior of the plasma membrane is considered to be _______ due to the non polar nature of the fatty acid tails. Hydrophobic
The exterior of the plasma membrane is considered to be _______ due to the polar nature of the glycerol heads. Hydrophyllic
Which type of transport protein has a tunnel that is hydrophillic? Channel
______ proteins can bind to molecules and change shape to transfer them across the membrane. Carrier
What are the two types of transport proteins? Channel and Carrier
This is the movement of like molecules down their concentration gradient. Diffusion
_______ transport moves molecules against their concentration gradient and uses carrier proteins. Active Transport
_______ diffusion uses membrane proteins and no ATP energy to move molecules down the concentration gradient. Facilitated
In osmosis water will always move _______ the hypertonic solution across the membrane. Into
Plant cells become ______ or firm when placed in a hypotonic solution. Turgid
What portion of the plant cell is responsible for the fact that the cell does not burst when placed in a hypotonic solution? Cell wall
A plant cell with an internal solute concentration of 0.04% is placed in a solution with a 0.5% solution. Will the cell become turgid or flaccid? Flaccid
When the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall in a plant cell that is placed in a hypertonic solution, it is known as: Plasmolysis
______ is a type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs a particle by extending pseudopodia around it and creating a food vacuole. Phagocytosis
______ is a type of endocytosis in which a cell obtains fluid by creating vesicles around the fluid. Pinocytosis
This type of endocytosis occurs when vesicle formation is triggered by solute binding to receptors on the plasma membrane. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
LDL receptors in human cells use receptor-mediated endocytosis to take in _________. cholesterol
Missing or defective LDL receptors in humans can result in high LDL numbers and those individuals have familial ________. hypercholesterolemia
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