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Section Assessments

Identify cellular processes that need energy from ATP. active transport, movement, and protein synthesis are examples.
How does ATP store energy? ATP stores energy in its phosphate-phosphate bonds.
How can ADP be “recycled” to form ATP again? A phosphate group can be added to ADP, reforming ATP.
How do proteins in your cells access the energy stored in ATP? They may have a pocket that ATP will fit into so that when ATP releases energy, the protein can use it.
List three biological activities that require energy. muscles contracting, heart pumping, brain functions.
Phosphate groups in ATP repel each other because they have negative charges. What charges might be present in the ATP binding site of a protein to attract ATP? Opposite charges attract, so an ATP binding site might have a positive charge.
Why do you see green when you look at a leaf on a tree? Why do you see other colors in the fall? The chlorophyll in the leaf reflects green and yellow while absorbing other colors. In the fall, chlorophyll is absorbed, revealing other leaf pigments.
How do the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis relate to the Calvin cycle? ATP and NADPH from the light reactions are used in the Calvin cycle.
What is the function of water in photosynthesis? Explain the reaction that achieves this function. Photolysis splits water to provide hydrogen ions for the Calvin cycle and restore electrons to chlorophyll.
How does the electron transport chain transfer light energy in photosynthesis? Proteins convey energized electrons through the chloroplast.
In photosynthesis, is chlorophyll considered a reactant, a product, or neither? How does the role of chlorophyll compare with the roles of carbon dioxide and water? Chlorophyll is neither a reactant or a product. It contributes electrons to photosynthesis but is not changed during the reaction. Carbon dioxide and water are reactants.
Compare the ATP yields of glycolysis, the citric cycle, and the electron transport chain. Glycolysis produces 2 ATP molecules, the citric acid cycle produces one ATP molecule per turn (2 total for each glucose molecule), and the electron transport chain produces 32 ATP molecules.
How do alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation differ? Alcoholic fermentation produces alcohol and carbon dioxide. Lactic acid fermentation produces lactic acid.
How is most of the ATP from aerobic respiration produced? Most of the ATP is produced by the reactions of the electron transport chain.
Why is lactic acid fermentation important to the cell when oxygen is scarce? It supplies energy when oxygen is unavailable.
How many ATP molecules are produced after the electrons go down the electron transport chain? 32 ATP molecules are produced
Compare the energy-producing processes in a jogger’s leg muscles with those of a sprinter’s leg muscles. Which is likely to build up more lactic acid? Explain. Aerobic respiration occurs in the muscles of both runners. The sprinter may build up more lactic acid because of an oxygen dept associated with the quick burst of energy.
Created by: cwear