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Dietary Nitrogen

In the fed state, the liver can convert amino acid carbons to fatty acids and glycerol, which form the triacylglycerols of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL).
During fasting, muscle protein is degraded and supplies amino acids to the blood, and the liver converts amino acid carbons to glucose or ketone bodies.
Amino acids are used for the synthesis of many nitrogen-containing compounds such as the purine and pyrimidine bases, heme , creatine , nicotinamide, serotonin, thyroxine, epinephrine , melanin, and sphingosine
Lysosomal proteases digest endocytosed protein
Large cytoplasmic complexes(proteasomes)digest older or abnormal proteins that have been covalently tagged with protein ubiquitin for destruction
proline (P), glutamate (E), serine (S), and threonine (T) have short half-lives. hydrolyzed by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
SUMO stands for small ubiquitin-like modifier, and when proteins are tagged with it their activities are altered (either positively or negatively depending on the protein
Pepsin is in the stomach and converts complex proteins to small peptides
Trypsin is in the pancreas and acts on basic amino acids lysine, arginine, histine
Chymtripsin is in the pancreas and acts on aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan
Elastase and Carboxiypeptidase acts on Caboxy terminal amino acids
Secretory trypsin inhibitor can cause pancreatitis
Neutral amino acids (Ala, Val, Leu, Met, Phe, Tyr, Ile)0r Zwitter ions
Basic amino acids (Lys, Arg) and Cysteine
Acidic amino acids (Asp, Glu)
Sodium–amino acid carrier system is secondary active transport
The L-system of amino acid transport is not dependent on sodium for cotransport. The L- system transports branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, and will be exploited in a treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU).
Disease related to defective membrane-transport systems of Amino acid absorption Cystinuria, Hartnup disease
transporter is responsible for active transport of cystine, ornithine, arginine and lysine (COAL) is defective and all four appear in urine. hexagonal kidney stones Cystinuria
Deficiency of tryptophan (neutral aa) transporter in proximal renal tubular cells and on enterocytes leads to clinical features of pellagra (niacin deficiency). Diarrhea, Dermatitis and Dementia Hartnup Disease
Created by: splashgreen