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MCB-Disease Prin.

PBSC-MCB-Principles of Disease

QuestionAnswer
_____ harbor pathogens and can transmit them to others, but do not show any signs of the disease. Carriers
What is the term used for the cause of a disease? Etiology
Damage to the host ______ _______ is the most common mode of action of toxins. Cell Membrane
A _______ infection is a systemic infection which then infects a specific portion of the body. Focal
Objective changes in body function such as fever or paralysis are known as _____. Signs
What is another name for a capsule? Glycocalyx
A _______ infection is limited to a small area of the host's body. Local
The term used for toxins that are produced by bacteria and secreted into the surrounding environment. Exotoxins
______ is an exoenzyme which breaks down the polysaccharide "cement" which holds cells of connective tissue together. Hyaluronidase
This type of exotoxin affects the lining of the GI tract. Entertotoxin
Most exotoxins are produced by gram _____ bacteria and are found on _______. Positive; plasmids
______ is an exoenzyme which causes clotting of blood. Coagulase
What is another name for a ligand on the surface of a pathogen that allows it to bind to receptors on the host cell tissue? Adhesin
Which type of bacterial cell contains endotoxin? (+) or (-) Gram (-)
For endotoxins to produce fever, the steps begin with gram (-) bacteria being engulfed by phagocytes. Phagocytes produce _______ which travels to the _______ via the bloodstream and the subsequent release of _______ produces fever. Interleukin-1; Hypothalamus; Prostaglandins
Chicken pox, measles and tuberculosis are all examples of _____ diseases, those that are spread from person to person. Communicable
_____ is the presence of bacteria in the blood. Bacteremia
_____ ______ was the bacterium that Koch used to formulate his postulates. Bacillus anthracis
_______ flora are the microbes which have permanent residence and do not normally cause disease. Normal
Which type of bacterial cell produces most of the known exotoxins? (+) or (-) Gram (+)
Chicken pox and measles are both examples of _____ diseases, those that are very easily spread from person to person. Contagious
The fraction of the population that contracts the disease over a period of time. Incidence
_____ diseases infect large numbers of people in a short period of time. Epidemic
_____ contact transmission involves fomites. Indirect
A _______ infection is one which shows no symptoms or signs. Subclinical
This type of exotoxin interferes with the transmission of a nerve impulse. Neurotoxin
Subjective changes in body function are known as ______. Symptoms
_____ diseases develop slowly and either persist or recur. Chronic
_____ are animals that transmit the pathogen from one host to another. Vectors
Give 2 examples of zoonotic diseases. Rabies
Is it passive or biological transmission that involves a vector passing a pathogen on the external body of the insect? Passive
Worldwide infections are known as ______. Pandemic
This type of exotoxin kills cells or alters their function. Cytotoxin
A change in health that results from an infection is known as _______. Disease
The fraction of the population that has the disease at a particular point in time. Prevalence
A _______ infection is an acute infection that causes the disease. Primary
What is the term for when a microorganism invades the body? Infection
______ is an exoenzyme which dissolves blood clots. Kinases
What part of the lipopolysaccharide of gram (-) cell walls is known as endotoxin? Lipid A
What does LD50 stand for? Lethal Dose 50
_____ diseases are always present in the population. Endemic
A _____ is a non-living object which transmits the disease to another person. Fomite
A _______ infection is spread throughout the body. Systemic
What is the term for the manner in which a disease develops? Pathogenesis
_____ is the presence of toxin in the blood. Toxemia
_____ transmission is a type of vehicle transmission involving release of the pathogen during something such as a sneeze. Droplet
_____ is the presence of a viral infection in the blood. Viremia
Vectors which can replicate the pathogen inside their bodies utilize _____ transmission. Biological
_______ pathogens are normally not pathogenic but will cause disease if the host is compromised in some way. Opportunistic
What are two exceptions to Koch's postulates? Mycobacterium leprae and Treponema pallidum
A _______ infection is caused by an opportunistic pathogen. Secondary
______ infections are those acquired while in the hospital. Nosocomial
Capsules interfere with host immune system cells and inhibit _______. Phagocytosis
Name 2 diseases that are known to be non-communicable. Tetanus and anthrax
______ is an exoenzyme which breaks down a major protein found in connective tissue. Collagenase
_____ are diseases that normally occur in animals other than humans but can be transmitted to humans. Zoonoses
What percentage of hospital patients acquire some type of nosocomial infection? 5%
What does ID50 stand for? Infectious Dose 50
What are the two major types of bacteria which are the cause of nosocomial infections now? E. coli and P. aeruginosa
_____ diseases only occur infrequently in the population. Sporadic
_____ is growth and multiplication of bacteria in the blood. Septicemia
_______ microbes are present for only a period of time and then disappear. Transient
The method to transmit disease which involves touching or sexual intercourse is known as _____. Direct Contact Transmission
_____ diseases develop rapidly and do not last very long. Acute
A ______ is a set of symptoms and signs associated with a particular disease. Syndrome
______ is an exoenzyme which digests the protective coating on mucous membranes. Mucinase