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MCB-Metabolism

PBSC - MCB - Metabolism

QuestionAnswer
The type of enzymatic control whereby the reaction is controlled by the binding of a molecule to a secondary binding site. (other than that of the active site) Allosteric Control
Which fermentation has a decarboxylation step? Alcohol Fermentation
How many ATP's formed in the ETC alone? 34
How many carbons in acetyl? 2C
What type of anaerobes can manage with or without oxygen? Facultative Anaerobes
What happens to the carbons in pyruvate by the end of the Kreb's cycle? They are all given off as carbon dioxide.
Enzymes released outside the cell to function. Exoenzyme
Reactant gas of respiration is: Oxygen
The NET number of ATP produced in glycolysis. 2 ATP
The end products of glycolysis are _______. Two molecules of pyruvate.
The name of the substrate when it is at the top of the energy hill and it is said to be "activated". Transition State
What is decarboxylation? The loss of a carbon as carbon dioxide.
Metabolic reactions whereby the products have less energy than the reactants. Exergonic
What are the 3 parts of aerobic respiration? Glycolysis, the Kreb's Cycle, and the ETC Note: Including Glycolysis in this.
What step turns pyruvate into acetyl? A decarboxylation step.
Enzymes whose production is increased by the addition of substrate. Induced
The energy currency of the cell is: ATP
What molecules are recycled in the Kreb's cycle? Oxaloacetate and Coenzyme A
What type of anaerobes cannot tolerate oxygen? Strict Anaerobes
The gain of electrons is called _______. Reduction
The uneven distribution of ______ drives the formation of ATP in the ETC. H+ (Hydrogen ions)
In a reversible reaction, if there is more product, which way will the reaction proceed? Toward the production of Reactant.
How many ATP's are produced in both fermentation pathways? 2 ATP only
The loss of electrons is known as _______. Oxidation
How many ATP's are obtained per NADH in the ETC? 3
The type of allosteric control whereby product feeds back allosterically to turn off the enzyme. Feedback Inhibition
The addition of a phosphate to any molecule or substrate. Phosphorylation
Glycolysis is the splitting of _______. Sugar
What is the name of the model which specifies that the enzyme's active site changes to fit the shape of the substrate? Induced Fit Model of Enzymes & Substrates
The 2C acetyl + oxaloacetate makes ______. Citrate
What is the name of the region of an enzyme which binds the substrate? Active Site
What does phosphorylation mean? The process of adding a phosphate to something.
The shorthand term for when reduction and oxidation reactions are coupled. Redox Reactions
The term for the complete enzyme which has the cofactor or coenzyme attached. Holoenzyme
What are the building blocks of enzymes? Amino Acids
Is oxygen reduced or oxidized at the end of the ETC? Reduced (to form water with H+)
Metallic ions which act to complete the enzyme structure. Cofactors
Which has LESS potential energy, ADP or ATP? ADP
What two gradients exist in the ETC? Charge and H+ concentration gradients
Enzymes which are in demand by the cell and therefore made in constant amounts. Constitutive
Enzymes which remain inside the cell to function. Endoenzymes
What type of phosphorylation occurs in glycolysis? Substrate Level Phosphorylation
The GROSS number of ATP produced in glycolysis. 4 ATP
Which type of fermentation is used by muscle cells occasionally? Lactic Acid (Lactate) Fermentation
Metabolic reactions whereby the products have more energy than the reactants. Endergonic
The total number of ATP produced in aerobic respiration per glucose. 38 ATP
NADH unloads _____ and _____ at the ETC. H+ and electrons
What is the first stage in both aerobic respiration and both types of fermentation? Glycolysis is the first step.
Organic molecules such as vitamins which act to complete the enzyme structure. Coenzyme
What does ATP stand for? Adenosine Tri Phosphate
The term for changing the shape of a protein either by high heat or a change in pH. Denaturation
What energy molecule is ONLY produced in the Kreb's Cycle? FADH2
The portion of the enzyme that is inactive (without the cofactor). Apoenzyme
Enzymes speed up the rate of reactions by lowering the _______. The Energy of Activation
How many carbons in citrate? 6C
The type of enzymatic control whereby a molecule similar to the substrate blocks the active site by binding to it. Competitive Inhibition
Product gas of respiration is: Carbon Dioxide