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CPYCH UNIT 7 2019

Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian Hnrs. Cog. Psych. Unit 7 Test Flashcards 2019

QuestionAnswer
What does the term "semantic memory" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "our organized knowledge about the world".
What is a "category"? This is "a set of objects that belong together".
Give one (1) example of a "category". One (1) example of this is "fruit".
What does the term "concept" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "our mental representations of a category".
Give one (1) example of a "concept". One (1) example of this is "15th - century Flemish painting".
Why is it sometimes difficult to transfer concepts from the classroom setting where we learned them to the context of a real-life situation? This is sometimes difficult because we learned the information in a classroom, so our "context" for this information is restricted to a classroom setting. Instead, we should consider how the information applies to our lives.
What does the term "prototype" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the item that is the best, most typical example of a category". (Or, the ideal representation of the category.)
What does the "Prototype Approach" to memory state? This approach states that we decide whether a particular item belongs to a category by comparing the item with a prototype. If it is similar to the prototype, we include it in that category.
What does the term "prototypicality" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the degree to which an item is representative of its category.
How does the "graded structure" approach work? In this situation, we begin with the most representative or prototypical members of a category and continue through the category's non-prototypical members.
When does the "typicality effect" occur? This occurs when people judge typical items (prototypes) faster than items that are not typical (non-prototypes).
What is the "semantic priming effect"? This is when people respond faster to an item if it was preceded by an item with similar meaning.
What are "superordinate-level categories"? These are higher-level, or more general, categories.
What is one (1) example of a "superordinate-level category"? One (1) example of this type of category is "furniture".
What are "subordinate-level categories"? These are lower-level, or more specific, categories.
What is one (1) example of a "subordinate-level category"? One (1) example of this type of category is "desk chair".
What does the "exemplar approach" state? This approach states that we first learn information about some specific examples of a concept, then we classify each new stimulus by deciding how closely it resembles all of those specific examples.
Explain what network models of semantic memory are like. These are netlike organization of concepts in memory with numerous interconnections.
What are "nodes"? These are how one (1) concept - or one (1) unit located within the network, in the "network model" of semantic memory.
What does the term "declarative knowledge" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "knowledge about facts and 'things'".
What is a "proposition" where semantic memory is concerned? This is the smallest unit of knowledge that people can judge to be either true or false.
What is one (1) example of a "proposition" where semantic memory is concerned? One (1) example of this is: Susan gave a cat to Maria. This is an example because people can judge whether or not it is true.
What is the "parallel distributed processing" (PDP) approach to semantic memory? This approach proposes that cognitive processes can be represented by a model in which activation flows through networks that link together a large number of simple, neuron-like units.
How do people make "spontaneous generalizations"? People do this by using individual cases to draw inferences about general information.
What is "graceful degradation" where the PDP approach to semantic memory is concerned? This refers to the brain's ability to provide partial memory.
What does the term "schema" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "generalized, well-integrated knowledge about a situation, an event, or a person".
How does "schema therapy" work? In this type of therapy, the clinician and the client may work together in order to explore the client's core beliefs and create appropriate new, more helpful strategies".
What does the term "script" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a simple, well-structured sequence of events in a specified order; this script is associated with a highly familiar activity".
What does the term "life script" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a list of events that a person believes would be most important throughout his or her lifetime".
What does the term "boundary extension" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "our tendency to remember having viewed a greater portion of a scene than was actually shown".
What does the term "verbatim memory" mean/ refer to? This term refers to people's (usually poor) word-for-word recall.
Explain how the "constructive model of memory" works? People integrate information from individual sentences in order to construct larger ideas.
Explain how the "pragmatic view of memory" works? In this view, people pay attention to the aspect of a message that is most relevant to their current goals.
What occurs during "memory integration"? During this, our background knowledge encourages us to take in new information in a schema-consistent fashion.
Complete the following sentence: "Semantic memory includes both __________________________ and __________________________." General knowledge; knowledge about language.
What are two (2) ways that researchers have used the prototype approach to examine social relationships? Researchers have done this by studying the prototype of compassionate love and the prototype of "being there" for a romantic partner.
Created by: sticklerpjpII