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Community Exam 2

Exam 2

3 components of the epidemiologic triangle: Host, Agent, Environment
Wheel Model of Human-Environment Interaction: 3 types of environments Biological, Social, Physical
Type of rate: new cases or conditions Incidence Rate
Type of rate: all cases of a specific disease or condition at a given time Prevalence Rate
Type of rate: number of new cases of those exposed to the disease Attack Rate
Type of prevention: health promotion & specific prevention; hand washing Primary Prevention
Type of prevention: screenings & examinations aimed at early diagnosis Secondary Prevention
Type of prevention: limitation of disability & rehabilitation of those with irreversible diseases Tertiary Prevention
Mechanism for the ongoing collection of community health information Surveillance
Focuses on the amount & distribution of health & health problems within a population; identified patterns frequently indicate possible causes of disease (ex: morbidity & mortality rates) Descriptive epidemiology
Examine complex relationships among the many determinants of disease; investigates the causes of disease by determining why a disease rate is lower in one pop. group than in another Analytic epidemiology
No manipulation by investigators; ex: females w/ high stress levels vs. those w/ low stress levels Observational studies
Examine relationships between potential causal factors & disease at a specific time; sometimes called prevalence or correlational studies Cross-sectional studies
Compare individuals w/ a particular condition or disease w/ those who do not have the disease; data collection extends back in time; ex: review health records for college students 5 years ago for drug addiction Retrospective studies
Monitor a group of disease-free individuals to determine if & when disease occurs "do they get the disease?" Prospective studies
Also called a randomized clinical trial (RCT); apply experimental methods to test treatment & prevention strategies; ex: new blood pressure meds being studied by a drug company to look for side effects Experimental design
Community composed of people who have common characteristics (ex: senior citizens, ethnic backgrounds, religious organizations) Aggregate
Common problem unites individuals Community of solution
The ability to respond to changing dynamics indicates productive community functioning Healthy communities
Used to make organized observations of the area & its people; drive or walk to understand environmental layout Windshield survey
Helps the nurse become familiar with an area & see how it has changed over time Census Data
Locally generated data collection; analysis of demographic information provides descriptive info about the population National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)
1st step in a Needs Assessment? Identify aggregate for assessment
Based on Hogue's group intervention model (1985) in need of a population focus; applies nursing process to larger aggregate within systems framework Health Planning Model
Type of needs: demand for services & the market behavior of the targeted population Expressed Needs
Type of needs: lack, deficit, or inadequacy of services determined by health professionals Normative Needs
Type of needs: wants & desires expressed by audience Perceived Needs
Type of needs: gap showing health disparities between advantaged & disadvantaged population Relative Needs
5 spheres of empowerment: interpersonal (personal empowerment), intragroup (small group development), intergroup (community), interorganizational (coalition building), political action
Model provides structure for assessing health & quality of life needs. Design, implement, & evaluate health programs to meet those needs PRECEDE- PROCEED
Better access to care funds, focused only on hospital construction planning, goal to increase # of hospital beds Hill-Burton Act
Latest technology & Regional Med Schools, but duplicated services Regional Medical Programs (RMP)
System of single state & area wide health planning agencies, goal of addressing needs of underserved, costs rose & system was unchanged National Health Planning & Resources Development Act
Administration that encouraged competition within the health care system Reagan administration
plan for health care reform included mechanisms to revitalize planning at a national level but failed & in 1994 gave planning back to state & local agencies Clinton administration
6 characteristics that affect learning: need to know, concept of self, experience, readiness to learn, orientation to learning, motivation
Empowerment among the poor & oppressed promotes literacy Brazilian educator Paulo Freire
Goal of PAR? social change
Literacy is operationally defined as the ability to read & write at the 5th grade reading level in any language & can be measured according to a continuum National Literacy Act (1991)
Purpose is to assure the conditions of human health & provide healthy environments for people to live, work, & play Environmental health
Environmental health is accomplished through: risk assessment, prevention, intervention
Growing evidence supports that the built environment directly and indirectly affects: health outcomes & disease rates
Phenomenon in which public structures & homes cause occupants to experience a variety of symptoms such as headache, fatigue, & exacerbation of allergies Sick housing syndrome
Stage of infection: infectious agent has invaded a host & found conditions hospitable to replicate; replication before shedding Latent period
Stage of infection: follows latency, begins with shedding of agent Communicable period
Stage of infection: time from invasion to time when disease symptoms first appear Incubation period
Disease that occur at a consistent, expected level in a geographic area Endemic
An unexpected occurrence of an infectious disease in a limited geographic area during a limited period of time Outbreak
An unexpected increase of an infectious disease in a geographic area over an extended period of time Epidemic
Steady occurrence of a disease over a large geographic area or worldwide Pandemic
The reduction of incidence or prevalence Control
Controlling a disease within a specified geographic area & reducing the prevalence & incidence to near zero Elimination
Reducing the worldwide incidence of a disease to zero as a function of deliberate efforts Eradication
A process which active or passive immunity to an infectious disease is induced or amplified Immunization
The administration of a vaccine or toxoid to confer active immunity Vaccination
Actions that focus on modifying economic, political, & environmental factors that are precursors of poor health throughout the world Upstream thinking
The individual is the focus of change (i.e. microscopic focus). There is a downstream approach. What theory does this describe? Orem's self care deficit theory of nursing
This theory places the burden of action exclusively on the client. Behavior is based on disease avoidance. It is comprised of constructs such as a perceived susceptibility, cues to action, & likelihood of taking an action. What theory am I? Health Belief Model
This theory attempts to predict a person's intention to preform or not preform a certain behavior. These intentions are determined by one's attitude regarding a behavior & the subjective norms associated with the behavior. This is an ex. of what theory? Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)
This theory is based on the assumption that behavior change takes place over time, progressing thru a sequence of stages. One may stop in one stage, progress to the next, or return to the previous stage. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM)
This type of assessment is performed by driving, walking, or biking through a community to gain a better understanding of the environmental layout. Windshield survey
1st step in the needs assessment process is: identify aggregate for assessment
Evaluation includes reflecting on programs to determine the plan's strengths & weaknesses. Which type of evaluation is completed at the end of a program? Summative
Community health diagnoses should be written with measurable & timed objectives (T/F) True
Upstream change can occur at local, state, & national levels. Which involved the creation of an innovation center for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Center? Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act of 2010
This act was intended to make the latest technology for the diagnosis & treatment of heart disease, cancer, stroke, & related diseases available to community health care providers among medical school. Affordable Care Act
This project required government approval of hospital & nursing homes' major capital investments Certificate of Need
This act included hospital construction plans & focused only on construction Hill Burton
National health insurance program that requires all citizens to be covered by one or a combination of insurance plans Regional Medical
This branch of the government is responsible for the Senate & the house of representatives: Legislative Branch
What are ways nurses' can have a role in political activities? Be a change agent, register to vote, join your state nurses association
We have seen a major paradigm shift at the national level of a philosophy at the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). (T/F)? True
Was the first nurse to exert political pressure on the government. She transformed military health & knew the value of data in influencing policy Florence Nightingale
This nurse became an advocate for abolishing slavery & supporting women's rights. Sojourner Truth
Was responsible for organizing relief efforts during U.S. Civil War. She founded the American Red Cross Clara Barton
This person was a political activist & worked with the federal government in the development of the Children's Bureau in 1912 Lilian Wald
Created by: yulissalira
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