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CH 7 Genetics

Ch 7: Microbial Genetics

TermDefinition
Ames test Ames test
Anticodon Portion of tRNA that is complementary to a codon on mRNA
Auxotrophs A mutant organism that requires a particular additional nutrient which the wild-type strain does not.
Base-excision repair A method of DNA repair where an enzyme system removes the incorrect base and fills in the gap
Carcinogens Cancer-causing agents
Chromosome A circular molecule of DNA associated with protein and RNA molecules
Codon Triplets of mRNA nucleotides that code for specific amino acids
Conjugation Plasmid genes are transferred from a living donor cell to a recipient cell via direct contact
Genes Specific sequences of nucleotides that code for RNA or polypeptide molecules
Genetics The study of inheritance and inheritable traits
Genome The sum of all the genetic material in a cell or virus
Genotype Actual set of genes in an organisms genome
Horizontal gene transfer General term where DNA from a donor cell is transmitted to a recipient cell
Inducible operons Type of operon that is not normally transcribed until activated by inducers
Lagging strand New DNA strand that is discontinuously synthesized in a direction away from the replication fork in series of short fragments
Leading strand New DNA strand that is synthesized continuously toward the replication fork.
Missense mutation A mutation in which what gets transcribed and translated makes sense, but not the right sense
Mutagen Physical or chemical agent that causes a mutation in DNA
Mutation A heritable change in the nucleotide sequence of a genome
Nonsense mutation A base-pair substitution changes an amino acid codon into a stop codon
Nucleotide analogs Compounds that are structurally similar to normal nucleotides but, when incorporated into DNA, may interfere with DNA polymerase function or cause base-pair mismatching
Operon A series of genes controlled by one regulatory gene
Phenotype The physical and functional traits expressed by an organism's genes
Plasmids Extrachromosomal DNA molecules
Point mutations Mutations in which one nucleotide base pair is affected
Pyrimidine dimers Adjacent pyrimidine bases to bond to one another
Quorum sensing Cells detect molecules and synthesize new proteins in response to the signals
Recombination Refers to the exchange of nucleotide sequences between two DNA molecules
Repressible operons Type of operon that is continually transcribed until deactivated by repressors
Revertants Cells that have regained wild-type phenotype
RNA polymerase An enzyme that binds to a specific region of DNA called a promoter
RNA primer Molecules for DNA polymerase to use during DNA replication.
Silent mutations A mutation where the substitution does not change the amino acid sequence
Transcription Process that produces a complementary RNA copy of the gene
Transduction A bacteriophage carries DNA from a donor cell to a recipient cell
Transformation A recipient cell takes up DNA from the environment
Translation The process used to synthesize polypeptides
Transposons DNA segments that contains palindromic sequences known as inverted repeats (IR) at each end
Vertical gene transfer Transmission of genes from parents to offspring
Wild-type Cells normally found in nature are called __________
Created by: drmicro