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PSYCHOLOGY

Learning and memory

QuestionAnswer
Memory A memory involves an active, information processing system in which information is detected, stored/organised and can be retrieved
Sensory memory • The entry point of memory. • The brief retention of the effects of sensory stimuli. • Not consciously aware of most of sensory information. • Information is received as raw (it has no meaning).
Sensory memory function Enables us to perceive our environment in an uninterrupted fashion via a brief retention of sensory information. Also acts as a filter for short term memory If attended to the information passes into short term memory.
Sensory memory capacity and duration • If not attended to it fades and is permanently lost. • Capacity: unlimited • Duration: 0.3-3/4 seconds
Sensory memory: iconic memory Visual sensory memory Duration: 0.3 seconds- allows smooth perception rather than blurred vison. Capacity: unlimited
Sensory memory: echoic memory Auditory sensory memory Duration: 3-4 seconds- allows us to attend to speech. Capacity: unlimited
Short term memory • Memory that is transferred from sensory memory or retrieved from long term memory and can be constantly manipulated. • The memory store where all conscious reasoning, thinking and planning take place (working memory).
Short term memory duration and capacity • Duration: 12-30 seconds= very susceptible to interruption or interference. • Capacity: 5-9 units of information • If information is not rehearsed it decays (duration) or is displaced (pushed out by new information due to capacity being reached).
Chunking the grouping of single units of information into groups of units = increase capacity
Long term memory • Relatively permanent memory store. • Information that is encoded can be stored and retrieved. • Memory is not stored in any one brain region subdivided into declarative and procedural
Long term memory duration, capacity and storage Duration: unlimited • Capacity: unlimited • Storage: information is encoded by its meaning and stored in semantic networks
Declarative memory Semantic: Impersonal, general, factual knowledge Example: knowing a phone number Episodic: memories of personally significant events and their content Example: recalling what happened on your birthday
Procedural memory Memory of learnt skills and action. Example: knowing how to ride a bike, walk or tie your shoelace
Explicit and implicit memory • Refers to the retrieval and expression of memory
Explicit conscious retrieval of memory, including recall and recognition. (awareness) Semantic and episodic
Implicit unconscious retrieval of memory, does not require deliberate recall. (no awareness) Procedural and classically conditioned
Cerebral cortex encoding, formation and storage of long term declarative memory (information is stored near the area it is initially processed)
Prefrontal cortex stores short term memory to enable coding
Frontal lobes procedural memories (language and motor skills) and episodic memories
Temporal lobes Memory for sounds and names of colours
Parietal lobes Spatial memory (memory of oneself).
Occipital lobes Memories for pictures, allow us to recognise faces and images
Hippocampus part 1 • The cells of the hippocampus are able to reproduce and enable new memories to form. • Responsible for converting short term memories into long term memories. • Responsible for the role of consolidation of explicit memories.
Hippocampus part 2 • Important for storage and retrieval of memory of complex tasks that require declarative memory. • Role in spatial memory- hippocampal cells encode spatial location information (direction). • Does not store memories
Amygdala part 1 • Essential for formation of implicit memories, including procedural memories and those formed during classical conditioning (fear response).
Amygdala part 2 • Essential for consolidation of emotional memory (such as emotions shown on faces). • During high emotional arousal the amygdala signals the hippocampus that stronger encoding is required
Cerebellum • Processes, encodes and stores procedural memories. • Also has a role in classical conditioning. • Involved in learning and executing motor skills
Interaction between brain regions - Hippocampus and amygdala part 1 • Due to being near amygdala, hippocampus plays a role in the relationship between memory & emotion • amygdala plays a role in consolidation of declarative memory with emotional content- decides what memory is to be encoded and where it will be stored
Interaction between brain regions - Hippocampus and amygdala part 2 • When we form emotional memories the hippocampus enables neural representations of the memory whilst the amygdala is responsible for the emotional content • The hippocampus component is explicit memory and the amygdala component is implicit
Interaction between brain regions - Hippocampus and cerebral cortex part 1 • A part of the storage and processing of declarative memory takes place in hippocampus before being transferred to the cerebral cortex for permanent storage.
Interaction between brain regions - Hippocampus and cerebral cortex part 2 • Provides cross-referencing system that links together all aspects of memory from different areas of the brain.
Classical conditioning part 1 • A type of learning that occurs through repeated association of two (or more) different stimuli. • Learning is said to have occurred when a specific stimulus consistently produces a response it did not previously
Classical conditioning part 2 • Only involuntary and innate reflexes can be classically conditioned. • Classical conditioning is a three phase process- before conditioning, during conditioning/acquisition and after conditioning.
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) produces a naturally occurring response/ the unconditioned (innate) response (UCR).
Neutral stimulus (NS) does not produce a naturally occurring response
Conditioned stimulus (CS) after repeated association with the unconditioned stimulus produces a conditioned (learnt) response (CR).
Before conditioning: • An unconditioned stimulus (UCS) produces an unconditioned response (UCR). UCS = UCR • A neutral stimulus (NS) causes no naturally occurring response NS = no response
During conditioning: • The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is repeatedly paired with the neutral stimulus (NS) to produce the unconditioned response (UCR). UCS + NS = UCR
After conditioning: • The neutral stimulus (NS) is now the conditioned stimulus (CS) and produces a conditioned response (CR). NS = CS. CS = CR
Pavlov’s experiment •Pavlov was the first person to discover the process of classical conditioning •His experiment involved connecting a collection tube to the dog’s salvia producing glands •He then recorded the amount of saliva secreted by each dog in response to stimuli
Pavlov’s experiment conditions food (UCS) ---- salivation (UCR) bell (NS) ---- no response bell + food ---- salivation (CR) bell (CS) ---- salivation (CR)
timing of classical conditioning • Classical conditioning occurs best when the unconditioned stimulus is presented immediately after the neutral stimulus
Taste Aversion part 1 • Much stronger than classical conditioning- usually only takes one occasion. • Unconditioned stimulus is chemicals which produce the unconditioned response of feeling ill/vomiting. Food is the neutral stimulus
Taste Aversion part 2 • Food is associated with chemicals that induce vomiting or gag reflux. • Food becomes conditioned stimulus that produces conditioned response of gagging/feeling sick.
Little Albert - before conditioning • The unconditioned stimulus was the loud noise which produced the unconditioned response of crying and emotional distress. • The neutral stimulus was the white rat.
Little Albert - During conditioning • The rat was repeatedly paired with the loud noise to produce crying and emotional distress
Little Albert - After conditioning • The rat was now the conditioned stimulus and produced the conditioned response of crying
Ethics associated with the Little Albert Experiments - do not harm Little Albert experienced psychological distress as a result of the experiment.
Ethics associated with the Little Albert Experiments - consent Little Albert was unable to give consent for his participation and his mother was not informed of the full extent of the experiment
Ethics associated with the Little Albert Experiments - debreifing He was not desensitised to the rat and harm was not corrected.
Ethics associated with the Little Albert Experiments - withdrawal Little Albert and his mother were not given the opportunity to withdraw and whenever Little Albert attempted to move away from the rat he was placed back with it.
Ethics associated with the Little Albert Experiments - competence the experiment lacked control, there was only one participant and there was only one trial.
Stimulus generalisation A stimulus similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produces the same or similar response as the conditioned stimulus. • For example: Little Albert was afraid of other animals such as rabbits and dogs.
Stimulus discrimination The conditioned stimulus is differentiated from other similar stimuli- the conditioned individual responds only to the conditioned stimulus. • For example: Little Albert only cries when he sees a rat, not a rabbit or dog.
Extinction The conditioned stimulus no longer produces a conditioned response. • For example: If Little Albert were to no longer cry when he saw a rat.
Spontaneous recovery The reappearance of the conditioned response when presented with the conditioned stimulus after the conditioned response was previously extinguished. Follows extinction and a rest period. The recovered response is not as strong
Created by: emmawalton05