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Glutamate, GABA, and parkinsons

Neural transmission as a lock and key process Neurotransmitter acting as a key that unlocks or activates a receptor site (the lock) Only a neurotransmitter with correct molecular structure and chemical charge can fit into the receptor site on a dendrite and have an excitatory or inhibitory effect
Neurotransmitters Molecules with a chemically distinct shape and charge
Glutamate part 1 • Main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. • Increases the likelihood that the post-synaptic neuron will reach its action potential
Glutamate part 2 • Stimulate/activate post-synaptic neuron. • Role in memory and learning. • Causes depolarisation of the post-synaptic neuron
GABA part 1 • Main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. • Decreases the likelihood that the post-synaptic neuron will reach its action potential
GABA part 2 • Role in the regulation of anxiety. • Causes hyperpolarisation of the post-synaptic neuron
Parkinson’s disease part 1 • A progressive neurodegenerative disease. • Neurons that produce dopamine in the Substantia Nigra (located in the midbrain) deteriorate. • Dopamine is needed to regulate the neural transmission between stratum and Substantia Nigra
Parkinson’s disease part 2 • Uncontrollable firing results from insufficient dopamine • Tremors, slowness of movement, slurred speech, rigidity of muscles • Slowness/impairment in memory/thought processes, reduced ability to concentrate, reduction in language functions
Treatments for Parkinsons The treatments involve increasing dopamine levels in the brain or imitating its action to reduce symptoms. They are effective as Parkinson’s Disease is caused by insufficient dopamine levels in the Substantia Nigra
Dopamine Agonists • Stimulating the dopamine receptors in the Substantia Nigra. • Imitates action of dopamine
Dopamine replacement therapy • Consumption of levodopa in medication that, once past the barrier of the brain can can be converted into dopamine, increasing dopamine levels in the brain
Created by: emmawalton05