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Hay fever is an example of type 1 HS, Mediated by IgE, basophils and mast cells
Hemolytic anemia is and example of type 2 HS with IgG and IgM, PMNs Macrophages, and NK cells
Graves disease, Myasthenia gravis and type 2 diabetes are examples of type 2 HS with IgG and no immune cell mediators
Arthus reaction and Rheumatoid Arthritis are examples of type 3 HS with IgG and IgM
Type 1 diabetes and Hashimotos are examples of type 4 HS with no Ig and Cytotoxic T cells, Th1s and macrophages
an immunogen that induces an allergic response. (10- 40 kD; diffusible, soluble, and stable), have peptides that bind to host MHC Class II molecules Allergen
Individuals with high blood IgE and high eosinophils Atopic people
Type 1 severe symptoms are caused by allergen crosslinking with IgE, binding to FceRI on mast cells
Normal individuals do not mount strong TH2 responses to most foreign antigens
IL-4 and IL-13, secreted by TH2 cells stimulate B lymphocytes to switch to IgE-producing cells.
Histamine causes the dilatation of blood vessel, increases vascular permeability; & stimulates the contraction of smooth muscles
Proteases causes damage to local tissues
Leukotrienes Smooth muscle contraction, increase vascular permeability, and mucus secretion. (similar to histamine, but in the later stages)
PAF chemotactic for leukocytes, and activation of neutrophil, eosinophil, and platelet
Platelet Activating Factor increased vascular permeability, vasodilation; also, adhesion of PMNs to endothelial cells (recruitment)
Prostaglandins vasodilation, edema; made by cyclo-oxygenases (COX enzymes)
Prostaglandins are inhibited by NSAIDS
IL-3, IL-5, GM-CSF promote eosinophil production and activation
TNF-a promotes inflammation, stimulate cytokine production
Lipid mediators Leukotirenes and PAF
Cause Vascular leak, Bronchoconstriction, Intestine hypermotility Histamines, PAF, PGD2, LCT4
Cause inflammation TNF, PAF PGD2, LCT4
Cause tissue damage tryptase
Immediate type 1 HS reaction Histamine
Cause late phase type 1 HS reaction cytokines, chemokines, leukotrienes from mast cells leads to neutrophil and eosinophil chemotaxis
IL5 is released by TH2 cells and stimulate bone marrow growth and basophil production
In basophils IgE binds to FceR1
A cluster of genes on chromosome 5 includes the genes all directly involved in isotype switching, eosinophil survival, and mast-cell proliferation IL-4, IL-3, IL-5, IL-9, IL-12, IL-13, and GM-CSF.
Uticaria: localized raised itchy swelling in the skin
Characteristic of allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma late phase response in HS 1 The acute responses in allergic asthma leads to TH2 mediated chronic inflammation.
Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) prolonged allergic response with chronic and itching skin rash with associated skin eruptions and fluid discharge. frequently presents in families with a history of asthma and allergic rhinitis, and is often associated with high IgE levels
Histamine caused GI symptoms stimulates gastric acid secretion and smooth muscle contraction. manifest periorally or as vomiting or diarrhea
The Rast Test (Radioallergosorbent Test) Detects Allergen-specific IgE In Serum -many false positives and negatives
. small quantities of common allergens is injected into the skin and look for the characteristic response Skin Test: primary method for diagnosing type 1 HSR being a “wheal and flare” reaction
Anaphylaxis (shock) caused by vascular dilatation; airway obstruction due to laryngeal edema. starts with itching (oral, or hives), then constriction of bronchioles and respiratory distress, followed by vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, laryngeal obstruction, and death.
Desensitization repeated administration of small doses of allergens. Idea is to change the T cell response away from TH2 dominant ANERGY. skews the response towards IgG or from the humoral to cellular one.
How is desensitation regulated Induction of T regulatory cells secreting IL-10 and TGF-b
Successful desensitazion treatments are associated with the production of allergen-specific antibodies of the IgG4 isotype and increased levels of IL-10.
Common treatments for type 1 HS avoidance, pharmalogical impact reduction, desensitazion
Created by: splashgreen