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MUA M2B2 IDR 03.5

Adaptive immune regulation pt. 2

ITIM immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif part of inhibitor Fc receptor
Hybridomas grow at the rate of myeloma cells , also produce large amounts of the desired antibody
HGPRT (Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase) an enzyme that allows cells to grow on a medium containing HAT (hydroxanthine, aminopterin, and thymidine).
Only______can live in the HAT medium hybridomas- unfused myeloma cells and spleen cells die
Secondary responses are the result of activation of memory lymphocytes
Primary immune response lead by IgM
Secondary immune response leady by IgG
B-cell–specific activator protein (BSAP) as a master B-cell regulator. BSAP also influences the final differentiation events leading to the formation of memory B cells and plasma cells. Plasma cells do NOT express BSAP.
The heavy-chain 3’α enhancer (E3’α) contains binding sites for several transcription factors. Binding of BSAP to __appears to influence B-cell development by preventing the binding of other transcription factors.
BSAP levels are high This factor appears to block binding of NF-αP to the 3’α enhancer (E3’α), thereby blocking transcription of the heavy-chain gene and promoting formation of memory B cells.
When BSAP levels are low NF- αP can bind to E3’α. Transcription of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene ,formation of plasma cells.
Tissue-resident memory T cells persist in previously inflamed tissue and function as first responders to cognate antigen re-exposure.
circulating memory T cells augment inflammation by rapidly migrating to inflamed tissue or responding to cognate antigen within secondary lymphoid organs and producing additional effector T cells.
T(Central Memory) express high levels of CD62L and CCR7, tend to be found in the lymph nodes and tonsils, and have higher proliferative ability.
CD62L- and CCR7-low TEffectorMemory cells tend to be found in the lungs, gut, and liver and have more potent effector function.
CTLA-4 (CD152) is an essential checkpoint control for T cell response
(CTLA-4), which is expressed on T cells only AFTER T-cell activation.
CTLA-4 is similar to CD28 and binds to B7 (CD80 and CD86) molecules with much higher affinity than CD28.
with anti-CTLA-4 antibodies blocks this inhibitory interaction and CD28 is again free to interact with the B7 molecules, further amplifying T cell responses against the appropriate target.
IL-2 is produced by activated T cells and acts back on these cells to produce more IL-2 and IL-2 receptor. Causes T, B and NK cell proliferation, also NK activation
Either the CD4+ or the CD8+ subsets possess few high-affinity IL-2 receptors.
IL-2 binds to and signals through a receptor complex consisting of three distinct subunits designated as:IL-2Rα (CD25), IL-2Rβ (CD122), and common γ -chain (CD132).
IL-4 icreases MHC class II antigens on B-cells and makes them more responsive. Encourages B cell isotype switching to IgE, Differentiates Th2 cells
INFy is produced by activated T lymphocytes (TH1 and CD8+ cells), NK cells, B cells, NKT cells and professional APCs.
IFN-γ stimulates the cytolytic activity of NK cells. Activates vascular endothelial cells, promoting CD4+ T lymphocyte adhesion and morphological alterations, which FACILITATES lymphocyte EXTRAVASATION.
TGF-β inhibits the proliferation of B-lymphocytes (IL-2), proliferation of thymocytes (IL-1), inhibits maturation of B cells, suppresses cytotoxic activity of NK cells (IFN), activity of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, proliferation of the precursors of LAK cells
All the antibodies secreted by a single plasma cell have the same isotype True
When boosters are administered at intervals for tetanus toxoid, B lymphocytes would have surface IgG, IgA or IgE
Created by: splashgreen