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Yr 10 Geology

all definitions

TermDefinition
Andesite magma Magma containing more silica than basalt, is viscous and forms cone shaped volcanoes such as Ruapehu and Taranaki
Ash eruption Very small fragments of magma erupted from a volcano
Active volcano A volcano that is ‘ejecting’ or erupting
Basalt Igneous rock with small crystals
Basalt magma Contains about 50% silica, flows like honey is least explosive and forms shield volcanoes like Dunedin and Christchurch
Caldera Large bowl shaped volcanic depression formed from the collapse of the top of a volcanic cone
Collision zone Where tectonic plates collide at their boundaries
Continental Type of crust that carries land
Core Central part of the Earth (about one third of the Earth’s mass, mainly iron and nickel)
Crater a bowl-shaped geological formation at the top of a volcano
Crust Outer layer of the Earth made up of rocks
Continental crust Crust underlying the continents
Convection currents Currents formed by the rising of hot, less dense material being replaced by cooler, denser material.
Dormant volcano Volcano not recently active but is not extinct
Earthquake Vibration of Earth caused by sudden release of energy
Epicentre Point on Earth’s surface above the focus of an earthquake
Erosion Transport of rock fragments and other materials
Extinct volcano A volcano that has not erupted for millions of years
Extrusive Cools rapidly on the surface of the Earth, contains small crystals e.g. basalt
Fault / transform Break in the rocks of the Earth’s crust
Focus Point where an earthquake starts
Fossil Remains of plants and animals that are preserved in rock / found in sedimentary rock
Geological To do with the structures of the Earth’s crust
Geothermal Where hot rock within the Earth’s crust heats water, which finds its way to the surface as hot springs, geysers and mud pools
Granite An example of an intrusive igneous rock
Igneous rock Rock formed by the cooling and solidifying of magma
Intrusive Cools slowly inside the crust contains large crystals, e.g. granite
Inner core The solid part of the core, hottest part of the Earth. Is made up of iron and nickel.
Lahar Mudflow on a volcano consisting largely of volcanic fragments
Lava Molten rock which has solidified on the surface of the Earth
Limestone An example of sedimentary rock made from the remains of tiny shellfish.
Magma Molten rock formed when rocks of the mantle or crust melt / hot liquid rock inside the Earth
Mantle Thickest section of the Earth, sits underneath the crust. It is made up of semi-molten rock called magma.
Marble Metamorphic rock made from chalk
Mercalli scale Used for measuring earthquake intensity
Metamorphic rock Formed when rocks are subjected to long periods of high pressure or heat without melting
Molten Liquid (melted)
Obsidian A shiny black igneous rock
Oceanic Type of crust that carries water
Outer core The liquid part of the core (molten iron and nickel)
Pumice An example of an extrusive igneous rock (A light volcanic rock with gas holes)
Rhyolite Magma that contains about 70% silica flows like tar is very viscous and most explosive, forms dome and caldera volcanoes such as Mt Tarawera or Taupo.
Richter scale Scale for measuring magnitude of an earthquake.
Sandstone An example of a sedimentary rock
Sedimentary rock Rocks formed from layers of deposition and cementation of rock fragments e.g. sandstone
Seismic waves Waves which travel out from the focus of an earthquake
Seismograph Instrument which records earthquake waves
Shale Compressed mud, an example of a sedimentary rock
Slate Metamorphic rock formed from shale
Spreading zone Where plates move apart at mid-ocean ridges
Subduction When one tectonic plate is pushed down under another at a collision boundary
Tectonic plates The crust is made up of 12 major plates that are moving at different speeds and directions
Tsunami Tidal wave
Volcano A hole or vent in the Earth’s surface where molten rock, gas and ash are erupted.
Weathering Breaking down of rocks on Earth’s surface
Created by: kjsime