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BIOLOGY CHAPTER 8

QuestionAnswer
Active immunity protection provided by an individual’s own adaptive immune response. This type of immunity takes time to develop, but the memory B and T lymphocytes that result can provide immunological memory that can last for many years, even a lifetime
Passive immunity protection provided to an individual by the transfer of antibodies produced by another organism Immediate Only protect the recipient for a few weeks or months Does not result in immunological memory Transferred antibodies degrade over time
Natural passive immunity passive transfer of antibodies from mother to foetus through the placenta prior to birth, and from mother to baby through breastfeeding. Provides protection to the baby for weeks or months, while its own immune system is developing
Artificial passive immunity individual receiving antibodies produced by another organism, usually by injection of antiserum—serum containing specific antibodies which bind to the antigens on the pathogen or toxin and form antigen–antibody complex that inhibits the pathogen or toxin
Natural active immunity develops from the adaptive immune response to a natural infection, and the immunological memory that results. The immune system makes antibodies in response to coming in contact with a pathogen and in the process creates memory cells
Artificial active immunity administration of antigens to induce an adaptive immune response. Vaccination made of altered, weakened or killed microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses, or inactivated forms of toxins or proteins, active immunity can be induced
Vaccines inactivated or attenuated virus that triggers an immune response Highly specific to initiate the production of antibodies Results in immunological memory Aim to decrease the incidence of many diseases ultimately eradicating them
Herd immunity Vaccination of a large proportion of a population Provides protection from a pathogen to non-immune or non- vaccinated individuals More people vaccinated, the less chance of an infectious agent spreading as there will be fewer potential carriers
Hypersensitivity immune system response to an antigen beyond what is considered normal. Occurs when antibodies respond to an allergen by causing the release of histamine from mast cells (immune cells involved in allergic responses and contain large granules of histamine)
Allergic reactions rapid and vigorous overreaction of the immune system to a previously encountered antigen- which is called an allergen because it produces an allergic response.
Hayfever initial exposure to pollen causes specific antibodies know as immunoglobulin E (IgE) molecules to be made. Antibodies to the allergen are produced by the humoral response. These antibodies bind to the mast cell and act as receptors to the allergen
allergic response 1 1. B cell encounters the allergen (ie. pollen) and differentiates into plasma cells after initial exposure of allergen.
allergic response 2 2. IgE antibodies produced by plasma cells in response to initial exposure and bind to receptors on mast cells
allergic response 3 3. On subsequent exposure to the same allergen, the IgE antibodies attached to the mast cell recognise and bind to the allergen creating crosslinks between the antibody on the mast cell and the antigen
allergic response 4 4. This cross-link triggers mast cells to release histamine from their vesicles causing the symptoms of an allergic reaction.
allergic response 5.1 5. Histamine causes dilation and increased permeability of small blood vessels causing swelling and inflammation. Can also cause increased mucus production and bronchoconstriction
allergic response 5.2 Also can cause activation of fluid-secreting cells, to try and flush out the foreign antigens; this results in symptoms such as a runny nose, teary eyes and sneezing.
Auto-immune Diseases diseases in which the immune system fails to identify 'self' material and makes antibodies (autoantibodies) against the body's own tissues. When immune responses is working properly it is directed against non-self antigens known as self-tolerance
How are Auto-immune Diseases produced failure of self-tolerance, which leads to an adaptive immune response directed against specific self-antigens cytotoxic T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune response attack the tissues directly B lymphocytes act indirectly by secreting antibodies
Multiple sclerosis (MS) autoantibodies attacking the myelin that forms an insulating sheath around nerve fibres in the brain and spinal cord. When myelin is destroyed, nerve fibres are exposed, and the transmission of nerve impulses along the affected fibres is slowed or blocked
symptoms of MS numbness, lack of coordination, unsteady gait, slurred speech, vision impairment and fatigue
Immune deficiency diseases immune system cannot adequately respond to antigens, or fails to react at all. There are two main forms of immunodeficiency disorders: primary and secondary
Secondary immunodeficiency acquired, and results from an external factor, rather than a genetic factor. Secondary immunodeficiency can be temporary or permanent. Temporary immunodeficiency can develop as a result of severe stress or malnutrition
HIV and AIDS When the number of helper T lymphocytes becomes very low as a result of HIV infection, the adaptive immune system is impaired and AIDS has developed. AIDS makes people susceptible to opportunistic infections
Cancer immunotherapy (monoclonal antibodies) any treatment that harnesses the immune system of the patient to fight diseases such as cancer Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are antibodies produced by a single clone of a B lymphocyte that is grown in culture to produce a large volume of the same clone
Monoclonal antibodies being engineered to bind to two different antigens (one to the cancer cell, the other to a Ct cell) in order to bring cytotoxic T lymphocytes close to tumour cells- these are known as bispecific)
Monoclonal antibodies targeting specific antigens present on cancer cells the monoclonal antibody can be joined to toxins or radioisotopes to specifically target and kill cancer cells and spare normal body- these are known as conjugated
Created by: emmawalton05