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Photosynthesis photosynthesis is the process used to trap the energy of sunlight, convert it to energy-carrier molecules (ATP and NADPH), and use this chemical energy to make organic molecules (sugars) from carbon dioxide
The structure of chloroplasts • Outer membrane • Folded inner membrane called thylakoid membranes joined to • Stacks of flattened discs called grana • Fluid matrix called stroma. The light trapping pigment of chlorophyll is located on the granum membranes in chloroplasts
The origin of chloroplasts Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes. The cell membranes of these unicellular organisms are heavily folded to form a complex internal membrane like the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts and contain chlorophyll and enzymes similar
endosymbiosis theory proposes that chloroplasts are the descendants of cyanobacteria that were engulfed by eukaryotic cells in ancient times (about 2 billion years ago) and lived in symbiotic relationship within the cells that had engulfed them
evidence to support the endosymbiotic theory chloroplasts have their own circular DNA and replicate independently by binary fission. Chloroplasts have ribosomes that share similarities with bacterial ribosomes. If chloroplasts are removed from cell, the cell is unable to generate new chloroplasts
Light-Dependent - location Occurs in the grana of chloroplasts and require the input of water as well as light energy
Light-Dependent - what happens 1. Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll. 2. The absorbed energy is used to produce ATP and split water molecules to form H+ ions and the waste product oxygen (released).
Light-Dependent - inputs H2O Light ADP+Pi NADP
Light-Dependent - outputs O2 ATP NADPH
Light-Independent (Calvin Cycle) - location Occurs in the stroma of chloroplasts and dependent on the light dependent stage occurring.
Light-Independent (Calvin Cycle) - what happens 1. CO2 is taken up by the leaves. 2. ATP and Hydrogen ions supplied by carrier molecule NADPH+ (from the light dependent stage) supplies the necessary energy and H+ ions for CO2 to be reduced from its highly oxidised state to glucose (C6H12O6).
Light-Independent (Calvin Cycle) CO2 ATP NADPH
Light-Independent (Calvin Cycle) C6H12O6 ADP + Pi NADP
Photosynthesis equation Carbon dioxide (6CO2) + water (12H20) with light energy/chlorophyll = glucose (C6H12O6) + water (6H2O) + oxygen (6O2)
Factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis - intensity of light At low light, rate is slow because the light-dependent stage can produce only small amounts of the ATP and NADPH needed for the light-independent stage. As light intensity increases, the rate of photosynthesis also increases until it reaches a plateau
Factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis - Carbon dioxide concentration there is the initial linear relationship between the increase in carbon dioxide concentration and the rate of photosynthesis. However, a point is reached when the rate of photo- synthesis begins to level out
Factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis - Temperature temperature that is optimum for the functioning of the enzymes of photosynthesis will also be the temperature at which the maximum rate of photosynthesis occurs. Enzymes are denatured at high temps so photosynthesis will cease at these high temperatures.
Cellular respiration the purpose of cellular respiration is to transfer the chemical energy stored in glucose into the chemical energy of ATP for use by cells.
Energy from glucose To extract energy from other organic molecules, some must be converted into glucose first, others are broken down to small molecules that can enter the cellular respiration pathways.
Aerobic respiration form of cellular respiration occurring in the presence of oxygen. • glycolysis • the Krebs cycle • the electron transport chain. C6H12O6 + 6O2 à 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36-38 ATP
Anaerobic respiration form of cellular respiration occurring in the absence of respiration
Mitochondria structure powerhouses of the cell. They are the sites of the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. The folded structures of the inner membrane are called cristae. Inside the folded inner membrane is the mitochondrial matrix.
Origin of mitochondria endosymbiosis. • Mitochondria reproduce by binary fission, independently of the cell. • Mitochondrial DNA is circular, like bacterial DNA (eukaryotic nuclear DNA is linear). • Mitochondrial ribosomes have similarities with bacterial ribosomes.
Glycolysis - location & oxygen Cytosol. Oxygen not required or used
Glycolysis - inputs • Glucose • 2ADP + 2Pi • 2NAD+
Glycolysis - what happens • glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate. • 2 NAD are loaded with hydrogen molecules to become NADH (hydrogens carried to electron transport chain). Yields 2 ATP
Glycolysis - outputs • 2 pyruvate • 2ATP • 2NADH
Krebs Cycle - location & oxygen Matrix of Mitochondria. Requires oxygen to be present but does not use it.
Krebs Cycle - inputs • 8NAD+ • 2FAD+ • 2ADP + 2Pi
Krebs Cycle - what happens • Pyruvate is converted into acetyl coA. • Each acetyl CoA molecule does 1 turn of the krebs cycle to create 2ATP, 6CO2, 8NADH and 2FADH2 (hydrogens carried to electron transport chain). ATP yield 2
Krebs Cycle - outputs Two 'turns' of the cycle yields (1 turn per pyruvate molecule) • 2ATP • 8NADH and 2FADH2 • 6CO2
Electron Transport Chain - location & oxygen Mitochondrial Cristae, compounds known as cytochromes located on the cristae are involved in this process. These complexes form an interconnected series that together make up the electron transport chain. Oxygen required and used
Electron Transport Chain - inputs • 8NADH and 2FADH2 • 32–34ADP + 32–34P
Electron Transport Chain - what happens • Electrons move down cytochromes • Hydrogen ions across the membrane through ATP synthase which generates ATP. • Oxygen accepts hydrogen ions and electrons at the end of the chain to create H2O.
Electron Transport Chain - outputs • 32–34 ATP • 8NAD+ • 2FAD+ • 6H2O
Anaerobic Respiration form of cellular respiration that does not require oxygen. Anaerobic respiration in all microbes produces energy in the form of ATP, but different microbes do not all produce the same other outputs
Lactic acid fermentation part 1 most often occurs in the cytoplasm of cells after glycolysis when oxygen is in short supply. The first stage of anaerobic respiration is glycolysis, which results in the production of pyruvate.
Lactic acid fermentation part 2 In the absence of oxygen, an enzyme present in muscle tissue converts pyruvate to lactate molecules. The acceptor molecule NADH produced in glycolysis is used to drive the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. ATP Yield: 2 ATP per glucose molecule.
Ethanol fermentation In yeast. As in animal cells, one glucose molecule is broken down to two pyruvate. In yeast fermentation, the pyruvate is then broken down to ethanol (alcohol) and carbon dioxide. ATP Yield: 2 ATP per glucose molecule.
Anaerobic respiration summary Oxygen not required Rapid ATP production Sustained over short time Less efficient energy transfer 2 ATP produced per glucose molecule Various end products Lactate and water (humans) Ethanol and CO2 (yeasts) Alcohol (some bacteria)
Aerobic respiration summary Oxygen required Slower rate of ATP production Sustained indefinitely More efficient energy transfer 32-34 ATP produced per glucose molecule End products are CO2 and water
Factors that affect cellular respiration - temperature When the temp drops, the reactant molecules contain less kinetic energy and so do not react as quickly. When the temp rises above the optimum level, the increased heat energy can disrupt the hydrogen bonds in the enzyme, causing the enzyme to denature.
Factors that affect cellular respiration - glucose availability The availability of glucose will affect the reactions in the cellular respiration biochemical pathways. If the temp remains constant, increasing glucose will increase the rate of cellular respiration up to a maximum level
Factors that affect cellular respiration - oxygen concentration In aerobic respiration, a constant supply of oxygen is needed. Oxygen is the final reactant of the electron transport chain. When the concentration of oxygen is low, the rate at which the electron transport chain can occur will be reduced
Compensation Point The compensation point is when the amount of carbon dioxide being released in cellular respiration equals the amount of carbon dioxide used in photosynthesis
Created by: emmawalton05
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