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Properties of Water

Cohesion an attraction between particles of the same substance (why water is attracted to itself)
How many hydrogen bonds can water from? As many as 4
Surface Tension Tension of a liquid's surface. Due to the forces of attraction between molecules.
The earth's surface is covered by approximately how much water? 70%
Plants and animals are made up of _____% water by volume 60%
Water molecule (H2O) 1 oxygen atom, 2 Hydrogen atoms
Polarity The larger oxygen atom attracts electrons more strongly than the smaller hydrogen atom.
Molecular polarity is responsible for waters strong______ surface tension
Hydrogen Bond Negative Oxygen end of a water molecule is attracted to the positive Hydrogen end of another water molecule.
Hydrogen bonding of water *Weak attractive forces between molecules * Attractive forces due to uneven distribution of electrons in polar bonds
Adhesion An attraction between molecules of different substances
Capillary action Adhesion properties cause water to rise is a narrow tube against the force of gravity. (draws water out of roots of plants and into stems and leaves)
pH scale The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral. A pH less than 7 is acidic. A pH greater than 7 is basic.
Acids (pH scale) *Strong Acids have a pH of 1-3. *Produce lots of H+ ions * Ex: stomach acid, lemon juice.
Bases (pH scale) * Strong Bases have a pH of 11-14 *Contain lots of OH- ions and fewer H+ ions. *Ex: Bleach, Oven Cleaner.
Buffers (pH scale) *Weak acids or weak bases that react with strong acids or bases to prevent sudden changes in pH. (neutralization)
Organic Chemistry Chemistry based on carbon
Polymer Large biological molecules are formed by linking smaller molecules together in a chain . (Large chain of monomers)
Monomer Small molecules (building blocks)
Dehydration Synthesis the process of joining two molecules, or compounds, together following the removal of water.
Hydrolysis 2 monomers are broken apart by adding an H2O molecule
Carbohydrates * Organic compound composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, & Oxygen *Stores energy and structural building blocks
Monosaccharide (monomer) *any of the class of sugars that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar. *Ex. galactose, glucose, and fructose
Disaccharide (Polymer) Composed of 2 monomers *sucrose= glucose +fructose (common table sugar) *lactose= glucose + galactose (sugar in milk)
Polysaccharides Composed of 3 or more monomers *starch, glycogen, cellulose *starch energy storage in plants
Lipids Fats and oils *Used by cells for energy storage *Insulation *Major component of cell membranes
Saturated lipids Contains max number of hydrogens possible. *All single Bonds
Unsaturated lipids contains some double or triple bonds, does not contain the max number of hydrogens.
Proteins * Composed of C,H,O,N,S. *Many functions, used by cells for structure and metabolism * There are more types of proteins than other organic molecules
Peptide Bond Bond between amino acids
Enzymes Proteins that speed up or slow down chemical reactions
Nucleic Acid a complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain.
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, *a self-replicating material which is present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
RNA ribonucleic acid, * a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins
Created by: tdavis5680