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lecture exam #2

population ecology

Population Ecology
Predators are significant environmental resistance in controlling population size
Biotic potential theoretical maximum rate at which a population can increase
Environmental resistance factors preventing the maximum growth potential (ex: food, space, competition, interaction, natural events)
Population size is influenced by ? increase in birth rates / immigration decrease in death rates/ emigration
Individuals in a population rely on the same resources,are influenced by same environmental factors, and are likely to interact and breed with one another.
Biotic potential and Environmental resistance Balance population size
Idealized models predict patterns of population growth
Exponential growth (J curve) under ideal conditions, a continuously accelerating increase in a population size (Ex. Rabbit population)
Exponential growth occurs when environmental resistance is reduced (seen after species recovery)(seen with invasive species)
Logistic population growth (s curve) population increases up to a maximum number that the environment can sustain, then stabilizes.
Logistic population growth stabilize at carrying capacity
Density dependent factors intensity is related to population density (Ex: intraspecific competition )
INtraspecific competition between individuals of the same species
Density independent factors limiting factors unrelated to population density (Ex: Abiotic factors such as weather)
Boom and bust Population cycle regular dramatic fluctuations in density (may be due to factors such as good shortage or predator- prey interactions)
Population Ecology is concerned with changes in population, size and factors that regulate populations over time.
The Biosphere
Ecology is the study of the interaction of organisms with their environment
Abiotic (NON- LIVING) factors
Biotic (LIVING) factors
Niche includes all of the biotic and abiotic factors of it's surroundings
Population a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular geographic area
community an assemblage of all the populations of organisms living close enough together for potential interaction
Ecosystem both the abiotic and biotic components of the environment
Biosphere all that is inhibited by life
Why do we study Ecology? it provides an insight into environmental problems
DDt an insecticide that was used heavily on crops during the 40's and 60's banned in 1972 ( had a negative impact on birds of prey it thinned out their shells so their offspring would die )
Abiotic factors are energy sources
producers rely on sunlight (limiting factor for plants)
consumers rely on producers for food indirectly affected by solar energy
Temperature has a great influence on metabolism
temperature too extreme conditions cant maintain metabolism
Adaptations allow you to live in extreme environments
Tonicity has great influence on aquatic life
The amount of rain determines what? the type of terrestrial biome
Inorganic nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus are important factors in photosynthetic organisms
inorganic nutrients soil structure and ph are crucial
climate long term patterns of weather in a particular region
What does the curvature of earth do ? distributes solar energy unevenly
How are seasons created? seasons are created due to the permanent tilt of the planet on it's axis as it orbits the sun
What three things play a role in climate? oceans, continents, mountains
ocean currents moderate coastal climates
elevation effects temperatures
mountains modify rainfall patterns
rainshadow the dry side of the mountain
Biome large area with similar environmental conditions and adapted organisms
phytoplankton photosynthetic organisms in aquatic biomes
zooplankton small drifter animals that consume organisms
estuary (MOST PRODUCTIVE aquatic biome) where freshwater streams or rivers merge with the ocean (salt concentration varies greatly) (ex: crabs, oysters, fishes, and nesting birds)
wetlands transitional between an aquatic ecosystem (marine or freshwater ) and terrestrial ecosystem )
mudflats and salt marshes coastal wetlands bordering estuaries (EX carpinteria salt marsh )
Lakes and ponds fresh water,distant away from shore
Rivers and streams fresh water, distant away from the shore, flowing water moves in one direction sources may be a spring, snowmelt or lake nutrient levels vary from one end to the other
Freshwater wetlands can be rich in species diversity store water reduce flooding improve water quality
marsh reeds and grasses are common
swamp woody plants/ trees are common
bogs poor soil peat \moss content
nine major biomes defined by plant life
plant life is determined by what characteristic? temperature, and amount of rainfall
Tropical Forest near equator, warm rainforests have around 100 in rain/ year long days 11-12 hrs all year round rows of vegetation arboreal animals(arboreal means tree) highest biodiversity 6% earth, 50% species
savanna grasslands with scattered trees warm temperature, but less rain than rainforest (12-20 in/yr) impressive grazing animals and predators migration fire is crucial
desert driest of all biomes (12 in/ year) Not always got (coll and hot deserts) 30 degree N and S latitude as well as in rain shadows of major mountain ranges plants and animals are well adapted annual wildflowers take advantage of storms
Desertification converting semi-arid regions to desert) is a huge environmental problem
Chaparrel (Mediterranean) coastal regions bordering deserts rainfall is up to 30 in/year, nearly all falling during cool, wet winters hot, dry summers plants are drought resistant: small shrubs and small trees (oaks) summer fires by lightning are common
Chaparrel Mediterranean plants are adapted to natural fires rare biome (in only 5 regions of the world) considered a biological hot spot (high number of endemic species)
Endemic species only live in the specific area and are not found anywhere else
Grassland treeless, except along rivers or streams cooler winter, average rainfall 10-30 in/yr fire plays an important role plants are well adapted to fires rich soil- agriculture and towns
Temperate deciduous forest trees are deciduous(drop leaves seasonally) very cold in winter/ hot in summer rainfall 30-60 in/ year during winter, lack of liquid water (no leaves) decomposers and small animals live in leaf litter predators like bobcats, foxses, black bears,
Coniferous forest evergreen cone-bearing trees(conifers) northern coniferous forest is called Taiga temperate forest is also coniferous
Alaska, oregon and other parts of the West Coast long, cold winters/short, wet summers tree shape helps shed ice heavily logged
Tundra the arctic before polar ice treeless, rainfall less than 10 in / year a freezing desert
Lack of liquid water permafrost permafrost is a continuously frozen subsoil No deep roots on plants short growing season marshes support larvae of insects
polar ice Northern hemisphere, covers land north of tundra as well as ocean nearby southern hemisphere, polar ice covers Antarctica as well as ocean nearby small plants like mosses and lichens small invertebrates such as nematodes, mites , etc seals, gulls
what factors influence a species? composition and distribution
ecosystem structure and dynamics energy flow and chemical cycling
community ecology is the study of the interactions between different populations that live in the same geographical areas we often see co coevolution in communities
Coevolution reciprocal evolutionary adaptations in two species in which each acts as an agent of natural selection on the other evolutionary time
competition species A species B - -
Mutualism species A species B + +
Predation species A species B + -
Herbivory species A species B + -
parasites and pathogens species A species B + -
iteractions occur when species compete for the same and different species
Interspecific competition Ecological niches of two populations may overlap two species can't same the niche for long they will partition (divide) their niches or resources over time
intraspecific competition competition is more intense members of the same species have the exact same niche and adaptation this type of competition drives natural selection
Mutualism increases the fitness in both species ex Honeybees', clownfish
Predators lead to diverse adaptations in prey species
cryptic coloration allows an animal to hide in its environment
mimicry resemble something else
mullerian mimicry toxic species looks similar to one another, increasing avoidance
Baetsian mimicry a harmless species looks similar to a toxic species
startle coloration a color pattern is "flashed" giving the prey an advantage to escape
warning coloration bright coloration advertise distastefulness or toxicity mechanical and chemical defense
Herbivory not often fatal to the plant often we see co evolution and counter adaptations (ex Heliconius caterpillar and passion flower)
parasites and pathogens can affect community composition obtain nutrients from host internal(tapeworm) external(mosquitos)
pathogens microscopic parasites (bacteria, viruses)
Trophic structure is a feeding relationship with many levels
Food chain sequence of food transfer up the trophic level
Detritivores derive energy from dead material produced by all trophic levels
Decomposers secrete digestive enzymes to break down food outside their body
Food web a network of interconnecting food chains more realistic
species diversity species richness (# of diff species) relative abundance ( how many of each )
Keystone species impact their community significantly removing them would drastically alter the community structure (ex. Sea otters)
Invasive species can devastate communities negatively affect environment by increasing in numbers and decreasing native biodiversity introduced by humans into an ecosystem in which they did not evolve *sometimes intentional, and sometimes accidental ex arundo Plant
Non-native (exotic) not naturally found in the given area
European starlings where introduced to central park new york in 1890 in an attempt to introduce all birds mentioned in the works of shakespeare
Invasive species can drive species to extinction damage the economy $120 billion in the us just to control the damage that is made' the small percent that make it cause devastating damage
What does an ecosystem include? what does it depend on? biotic and abiotic components of the environment photosynthesis and respiration
Energy flow the passage of energy through the components of an ecosystem 1% energy from sun to producers 10% energy through each trophic level 90% loss of energy as you go up the levels
Carbon cycle carbon is recycled
Created by: meli0816
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