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Exam 1 bio tech

chap 16

QuestionAnswer
Given a polynucleotide sequence such as GAATTC, explain what further information you would need in order to identify which is the 5' end. You can't tell which end is the 5' end. You need to know which end has a phosphate group on the 5' carbon (the 5' end) or which end has an —OH group on the 3' carbon (the 3' end)
What role does complementary base pairing play in the replication of DNA? Complementary base pairing ensures that the two daughter molecules are exact copies of the parental molecule. When the 2 strands of the parental molecule separate, each serves as a template on which nucleotides are arranged into new complementary strands.
Identify two major functions of DNA pol III in DNA replication. DNA pol III covalently adds nucleotides to new DNA strands and proofreads each added nucleotide for correct base pairing
What is the relationship between DNA replication and the S phase of the cell cycle? In the cell cycle, DNA synthesis occurs during the S phase, between the G1 and G2 phases of interphase
If the DNA pol I in a given cell were nonfunctional, how would that affect the synthesis of a leading strand? Synthesis of the leading strand is initiated by an RNA primer, which must be removed and replaced with DNA, a task that could not be performed if the cell’s DNA pol I were nonfunctional.
. Describe the structure of a nucleosome, the basic unit of DNA packing in eukaryotic cells. A nucleosome is made up of eight histone proteins, two each of four different types, around which DNA is wound. Linker DNA runs from one nucleosome to the next
. What two properties, one structural and one functional, distinguish heterochromatin from euchromatin? Euchromatin is chromatin that becomes less compacted during interphase and is accessible to the cellular machinery responsible for gene activity. Heterochromatin remains condensed during interphase and contains genes inaccessible to this machinery
What provided the first evidence that genetic material is DNA Experiments with bacteria and phages
What does it mean when we say that the two DNA strands in the double helix are antiparallel? What would an end of the double helix look like if the strands were parallel? Each strand in the double helix has polarity; the end with a phosphate group on the 5' carbon ofthe sugar is called the 5' end the end with an — OH group on the 3' carbon ofthe sugar is called the 3' end. The two strands run in opposite directions.
What model of replication does DNA follow DNA replication is semiconservative: The parental molecule unwinds, and each strand then serves as a template for the synthesis of a new strand according to base-pairing rules
How does DNA Poly repair proofread new DNA, replacing incorrect nucleotides
How does mismatch repair repair , enzymes correct errors that persist
How does “nucleotide excision repair work a process by which nucleases cut out and other enzymes replace damaged stretches of DNA. the ends of eukaryotic chromosomal DNA get shorter with each found of replication
What do telemeres do? The presence of telomeres, repetitive sequences at the ends of linear DNA molecules, postpones the erosion of genes. Telomerase catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres
Compare DNA replication on the leading and lagging strands, including similarities and differences. On both lead and lag strands, DNA poly adds onto the 3' end of an primer. synthesizing DNA in the 5' - 3' direction. the lead strand synthesises continuously into the fork. The lag strand is synthesized bit by bit away from fork. Same Rate
what is chromatin in a eukaryotic cell made up of DNA, histones, and other proteins.
nucleosomes the most basic units of DNA packing. histones bind to each other and to the DNA to form nucleosomes
What is the basis for the difference in how the leading and lagging strands of DNA molecules are synthesized? DNA polymerase can join new nucleotides only to the 3' end of a pre-existing strand, and the strands are antiparallel.
In analyzing the number of different bases in a DNA sample, which result would be consistent with the base-pairing rules? A+G=c+T
The elongation of the leading strand during DNA synthesis depends on the action of DNA polymerase
In a nucleosome, the DNA is wrapped around Hiatones
E. coli cells grown on N15 medium are transferred to N14 medium and allowed to grow for two more generations (two rounds of DNA replication). DNA extracted from these cells is centrifuged. What density distribution of DNA would you expect in this experime one low-density and one intermediate-density band
chemist combines in a tube molecules needed for replication. When she adds some DNA to the mixture, replication occurs, but each DNA molecule consists of a normal strand paired with numerous segments of DNA a few 100 nucleotides long. What she leave out? DNA ligase
The spontaneous loss of amino groups from adenine in DNA results in hypoxanthine, an uncommon base, opposite thymine. What combination of proteins could repair such damage? nuclease, DNA polymerase, DNA ligase
chargoffs rules dna base composition varies between species A and T bases equal for each species
DNA composition Phosphate sugar backbone, 4 nitrogenous bases; adenine guanine cytosine thymine linked by sugar phosphate bonds held together by hydrogen bonds
purines adenine and guanine
pyramdines thymines and cytosine
dATP Adenine nucleotide used to make DNA
Replication steps 1 primase makes primer to attach to origin and first okazaki 2 poly 3 works on lead while also finishing okazaki 3 poly 3 leaves and starts to work with primer on next okazaki
Replication steps 2 4 poly 1 removes RNA primer from completed okazaki and adds DNA 5ligase connects okazakis 6 poly 1 replaces RNA primer from origin leaving an open 3'
nucleotide excision repair combo 1 Nuclease takes out fucked up dna 2 polymerase addds new dna 3 ligase connects dna segments
DNA Replication process by which DNA is copied
Transformation a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA
phage bacteria eater
double helix shape of dna 2 antiparrellel strands spiralling around an imaginary axis
antiparrell arrangement of sugar phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix. Run in opposite 5-3' direction
origin of replication where DNA replication begins. Prokaryotes have single origin eukaryotes have many
Helicase enzyme that unwinds the double helix of DNA at fork, seperating 2 strands and using them as templates
single strand binding proteins holds template strands apart as DNA synthesis takes place
toposmerase protein that rejoins DNA strands. Keeps strands not involved in replication from tangling
Primer Short RNA nucleotide chain with a 3' end that is needed to initiate replication
primase enzyme that makes primer
Poly III adds DNA to primer to complete DNA strands. Adds nucleotides to 3' end of existing chain.
Poly 1 Remove primer RNA, and adds DNA
okazaki 1000-2000 nukes in ecoli, 100-200 nukes in eukaryo
ligase connects okazakis
mismatch pair the cellular process that uses specific enzymes to remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides
chromotin complex of dna and proteins that make up chromosomes
Created by: Virajasaur