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Genetics Unit 2

Genetics Vocabulary

Condition in which a normally diploid cell or organism lacks one complete set of chromosomes. Monoploidy
The short, single stranded DNA fragments that are synthesized on the laggin strand template during DNA replication and are subsequently covalently joined to make a continuous strand, the lagging strand. Okazaki Fragments
An enzyme that catalyzes unwinding of the DNA double helix at a replication fork during DNA replication DNA Helicase
A cross between an individual heterozygous at three loci with and individual homozygous for recessive alleles at the same three loci. Three-Point Testcross
The presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21, which causes Down Syndrome in humans Trisomy-21
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material not caused by genetic recombination Mutation
The presence of an extra copy of chromosome 18, which causes Edward's Syndrome in humans. Trisomy-18
Condition in which a cell or organism has more than two sets of chromosomes Polyploidy
The association of genes located on the same chromosome such that they tend to be inherited toether Linkage
In DNA replication, the DNA strand that is synthesized discontinuously from multiple RNA primers in the direction opposite to movement of the replication fork Lagging strand
A chromosomal mutation in which a segment including the centromere and pares of both chromosome arms is inverted. Pericentric Inversion
A chromosome, cell, or individual that has non-parental combinations of genetic markers as a result of genetic recombination Recombinant
A type of Aneuploidy in which a normally diploid cell or organism possesses three copies of a particular chromosome instead of two copies. Trisomy
The type of monomeric molecule found in RNA and DNA Nucleotide
A representation of the relative distance separateing genes on a chromosome based on the frequencies of recombination between non allelic gene loci. Genetic Map or Linkage Map
A chromosomal mutation in which a segment on one chromosome arem that does not include a centromere is inverted Paracentric Inversion
Condition in which a cell or organism has two or more gentically distinct sets of chromosomes of the same species. Autopolyploidy
A specific reion in DNA where the double helix unwinds and sythesis of new DNA begins Origin of Replication
A process bye which parents with different alleles give rise to progeny with genotypes that differ from either parent. Genetic Recombination
DNA strand on which is synthesized a complementary DNA strand during relication of a RNA strand during replication. Template Strand
Alleles that prodcue detectable phenotypic differences useful in genetic analysis Gene Markers
A chromosomal mutation resulting in the loss of a segment of a chromosome and the gene sequence it contains Deletion
A chromosomal mutation that results in the doubling of a segment of a chromosome and the gene sequence it contains Duplication
A homologous chromosome pair in meiosis I in which on chromatid has two centromeres as the result of crossing-over within a paracentric chromosome and the gene sequence it contains Dicentric Chromosome
Chromatin that remains condensed throughout the cell cycle and is usually not transcribed Heterochromatin
Any condition in which the number of chromosomes differs from and exact multiple of the normal haploid number in a cell or organism Aneuploidy
Describing an allele of phenotype that is expressed only in the homozygous state Recessive
The pentose (five carbon) sugar found in RNA Ribose
The physical and functional unit that helps determine the traits passed on from parents to offspring; also called Mendelian factor Gene
Describing an allele or phenotype that is expressed in either the homozygous or heterozygous state Dominant
The specific A-T and G-C base pairs in double strand DNA Complementary Base Pairs
The genetic makeup (allelic composition) of individuals in the parental generation of genetic crosses. Parentals
A nitrogen-containing purine or pyrmidine that, along with the pentose sugar and a phosphate, is one of the three parts of a nucleotide Nitrogenous Base
The variation from the wild-type condition in chromosome number or structure Chromosomal Mutation
In eukaryotic cells, a linear structure composed of a single DNA molecule complexed with protein Chromosome
A protein that binds to the unwound DNA strand at a replication bubble and prevents them from reannealing Single-Strand DNA-Binding (SSB) Protein
A chromosomal mutation in which a segment of a chromosome is excised and then reintegrated in an orientation 180 degrees from the original orientation. Inversion
Any gene or DNA region whose sequence carries amond individuals and is usedful in genetic analysis. Genetic Marker
In DNA replication, the DNA strand that is synthesized continuously from a single RNA primer in the same diraction as movement of the replication fork Leading Strand
The presence of an extra chromosome-13, which causes Patau Syndrome in humans Trisomy-13
In the case of double stranded DNA, referring to the opposite orientations of the strands, with the 5' end of one strand paired with the 3' end of the other strand. Antiparallel
On of two or more alternative forms of a single gene that can exist at the same locus in the genome. Allele
A type of nonreciprocal translocation in which the long arms of two nonhomologous acrocentric chromosomes become attached to a single centromere Robersonian Translocation
Referring to an organism or cell that has one complete set of chromosomes or an exact multiple of complete sets. Euploid
The pentose (five carbon) sugar found in DNA Deoxyribose
Any ennzyme that catalyzes the supercoiling of DNA Topoisomerase
One of the two types of cyclic nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA. Adenine and Guanine Purines
A Y-Shaped structure formed when a double stranded DNA molecule unwinds to expose the two single stranded template stands for DNA replication. Replication Fork
An Enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a phosphodiester bond between the 5' end of one DNA chain and the 3' end of another DNA chain during DNA replication and DNA repair. DNA Ligase
Repetitive DNA sequences that are clustered together in the genome, so that each sequence is repeated many times in a row within a particular chromosomal region Tandemly repeated DNA
Any of the nucleotides that make up RNA, consisting of a sugar, a base, and a phosphate group Ribonucleotide
A type of Aneuploidy in which on chromosome of a homologous pair is missing from a normally diploid cell or organism Monosomy
The process for making a single-stranded RNA molecule complementary to onee strand (the template strand) of a double-stranded DNA molecule, thereby transferring information from DNA to RNA Transcription
High molecular weight polynucleotide Nucleic Acid
An enzyme that catalyzes formation of a short RNA primer in DNA replication Primase
Chromatin that is condensed during mitosis, but becomes uncoiled during interphase when it can be transcribed. Euchromatin
A short RNA chain, produced by DNA primase during DNA replication, to which DNA polymerase adds nucleotides thereby extending the new DNA strand RNA Primer
The observable characteristics of an organism that are produced by the genotype and its interaction with the environment Phenotype
The unit of distance on a genetic map Centimorgan
A locally unwound (denatured) region of DNA bounded by replication forks at which DNA sythesis proceeds in opposite directions Replication Bubble
The total amound of genetic material in a chromosome set; in eukaryotes this is the amount of genetic material in the haploid set of chromosomes of the organism Genome
The DNA protein complex that constitutes eukaryotic chromosomes and can exist in various degrees of folding or composition Chromatin
A chromosomal mutation involving a change in the position of a chromosome segment (or segments) and the gene sequences it contains. Translocation
Describing a diploid organism having different alleles of one or more genes and therefore producing gametes of different genotypdes Heterozygous
A covalent bond in RNA and DNA between a sugar of one nucleotide and a phosphate group of an adjacent nucleotide. Phosphodiester Bond
One of the two types of cyclic nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA. Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil Pyrimidines
Any of the nucleotides that make up DNA Deoxyribonucleotides
Genes that are located on the same chromosome and thend to be inherited together Linked Genes
One of a class of basic proteins that are complexed with DNA in chromatin and play a major role in determining the structure of eukaryotic nuclear chromossomes. Histones
The process that converts the nucleotide sequnce of an mRNA in the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide Translation
Created by: tmistyd