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Food - Nutrition

Leaving Cert Biology

QuestionAnswer
Name the 4 major biomolecules Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Vitamins
What elements are present in carbohydrates Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
In what ratio are the elements present in a carbohydrate 1:2:1
What is the smallest unit of a carbohydrate Monosaccharide
Name 2 monosaccharides Glucose and Fructose
What is the main function of glucose Main molecule from which organisms get their energy -Respiratiion
What are two monosaccharides joined together called Disaccharides
Name 2 common disaccharides Sucrose (Table sugar) and Lactose (Milk)
What do you call a long chain of monosaccharides Polysaccharides
Name 2 common polysaccharides Starch and Cellulose
Why is starch easily digested Because the monosaccharides are arranged in a long straight line
Excess glucose made in plants by photosynthesis is stored as what? Starch
Excess glucose in animals cannot be stored what is it converted to Glycogen (in muscle)
Why is cellulose difficult to break down (digest) Beacuse monosaccharides are present in long interconnecting chains with alot of crossbonding
Where would you find cellulose Plant cell walls
What is function of cellulose in plant cell walls Provides strength
What elements do Lipids contain Carbon , Hydrogen and Oxygen (no set ratio)
Lipids contain fats and oils, what is difference between both Oils are liquid are room temp, fats are solid
What do you call the smallest unit of a lipid Triglyceride or Phospholipid
What is a triglyceride made up of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
What is a phospholipid made up of 1 glycerol, 2 fatty acids and 1 phosphate
In what cell structure would you find phospholipids Cell membrane
What elements are present in protein Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen (no set ratio)
What is the smallest unit of a protein Amino acid
What do you call a short chain of amino acids (up to 20) Peptide
What do you call a chain of up to 200 amino acids Polypeptide
What do you call a chain of up to 200+ amino acids Protein
Name a structural role of a carbohydrate Cellulose in cell wall
Name a metabolic role of a carbohydrate Respiration, breakdown of glucose for energy
Name a structural role of a carbohydrate Phospholipid bi-layer in membranes
Name a metabolic role of lipid Release and storage of energy
Name a structural role of a protein Keratin in hair and nails
Name a metabolic role of a protein All enzymes are proteins - control metabolic reactions
Name the organic substances that the body requires in small amounts but cannot make Vitamins
Vitamins are divided into two groups, what are they Water soluble and Fat soluble
What are the Water soluble vitamins B and C
What are the Fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K
Name a good source of Vit C Citrus fruits
Name a good source of Vit D Sunlight and Fish oils
Name a disease caused by the deficiency of Vit C Scurvy (poor healing of skin and poor gums)
Name a disease caused by the deficiency of Vit D Rickets or Osteomalacia
Name the inorganic substances that the body requires in small amounts but cannot make Minerals
Name 2 common elements required by plants Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg)
Name a function of Ca in plants Helps form middle lamella between plant cells
Name a function of Mg in plants Forms part of chlorophyll
Name 2 common elements required by animals calcium (Ca) and Iron (Fe)
Name a function of Ca in animals Helps form healthy teeth and bones
Name a function of Fe in animals Forms part of hemoglobin
Name 3 functions of water in cells Universal solvent, Medium for chemical reactions, Regulates body temperature
What do you call the test for fat Brown paper test
What happens to paper if fat is present Translucent spot
What chemical is used to test for starch Iodine
If starch is present, what colour change occurs Yellow to blue/black
What chemical is used to test for protein Biuret reagent
If protein is present, what colour change occurs Blue to Violet
What chemical is used to test for reducing sugar (glucose) Benedicts
If glucose is present, what colour change occurs Blue to brick red AFTER HEATING
What is a catabolic recation Reactions where larger molecules are broken down and energy is released
What is an anabolic reaction Reactions where smaller molecules are used to form a larger one and energy is taken in
Created by: gcu biology