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BIO practical 1

QuestionAnswer
what is the joint capsule surrounds the synovial joint and has a fibrous layer and synovial membrane
what is articulation where 2 bones meet
what is synarthroses no movement
what is amphiarthroses little movement
what is diarthroses lots of movement
what is synovial fluid clear fluid
what are the functions of synovial fluid lubrication, nutrient distribution, waste removal, and shock absorption
what are the accessory structures meniscus, fat pad, bursa, and ligaments
what is the joint cavity contains synovial fluid
what is the articular cartilage reduces friction, and covers the surface
what are fat pads masses of adipose tissue and protect articular cartilage
what are the ligaments support, strengthen, and reinforce synovial joints
what is bursa fluid, filled pockets that reduce friction and act as shock absorbers
what are the 6 types of synovial joints gliding, hinge, pivot, condylar, saddle, and ball-and-socket
what are the axes of motion monaxial, biaxial, triaxial
what movement is a gliding joint nonaxial or multiaxial
what movement is a hinge joint monaxial, angular movement
what movement is a condylar joint biaxial, angular movement
what movement is a ball and socket joint triaxial, angular movement
what movement is a saddle joint biaxial, angular movement
what movement is a pivot joint monaxial, rotation movement
what is flexion reduces angle, front of body
what is extension increases angle
what is hyperextension past anatomical position, behind body
what is abduction moves away from axis
what is adduction moves toward axis
what is circumduction circular movement without rotation
what is medial rotation rotate towards axis
what is lateral rotation rotate away from axis
what is pronation rotates forearm, radius over ulna, palm face down
wha is supination palms up, anatomical position
what is inversion sole of foot inwards
what is eversion sole of foot downwards
what is dorsiflexion flexion at ankle, toes to ceiling
what is plantar flexion extension of ankle, toes to floor
what is opposition thumb towards fingers or palm
what is reposition opposite of opposition
what is protraction pushing forward
what is retraction moving back
what is elevation mouth moves up
what is depression mouth moves down
what is lateral flexion head side to side
what is pH measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
what is acid proton DONOR, decreases pH and adds H+
what is a base proton ACCEPTOR, increases pH and removes H+
what is a hydrogen ion a proton
what does excess H+ do breaks bonds
what is the relationship of pH and H+ pH decreases as H+ increases
what is equation of pH -log[H+]
what is acidic pH below 7, has more H+
what is basic pH above 7, more OH-
what is neutral pH 7
what is the pH of blood 7.35-7.45
what is a buffer weak acids that neutralize strong acids and bases
what are the 4 buffer systems phosphate, protein, hemoglobin, and carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
what is the buffer system for prevent drastic changes in pH
what is the equation of the carbonic acid-bicarbonate CO2+ H2O > H2CO3 > H + HCO3
what is the hemoglobin buffer system can bind H+ ions and prevent decreases in blood pH
what is the pH indicator colors ROY G BIV
what is the composition of blood plasma (55%) and formed elements (45%)
what are the formed elements of blood red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets
what is the function of formed elements of blood transport gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic waste, regulate pH, clotting, defend against toxins, body temp.
what is blood type A B antiBODIES, A antigens
what is blood type B A antiBODIES, B antigens
what is blood type O A & B antiBODIES, no antigens
what is blood type AB no antiBODIES, A & B antigens
what is the Rh factor this means positive with no Rh antibodies
what is aggulation antibodies bind to surface antigens and cause RBCs to clump
what happens in aggulation occurs that is the blood type
what is the universal recipient AB+
what is the universal donor O-
what is a cross-reaction occurs if donor and recipient are not compatible, agglutinate
what is erythroblastosis fetalis if the mom is negative and the baby is positive
what is the 1st step to blood flow superior and inferior vena cava
what is the 2nd step to blood flow tricuspid valve
what is the 3rd step to blood flow pulmonary semilunar valve
what is the 4th step to blood flow pulmonary trunk to lungs
what is the 5th step to blood flow 4 pulmonary veins
what is the 6th step to blood flow bicuspid valve
what is the 7th step to blood flow aortic semilunar valve
what is the 8th step to blood flow aorta and body
what is the first sound of the heart the AV valves closing, tricuspid and bicuspid
what is the second sound of the heart the SL valves closing, aortic and pulmonary
what is APTM aortic, pulmonic, tricuspid, mitral
Created by: ashlynew