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Ch 15: Mining

APES: Finding & Remving Nonrenewable Resources

Mineral resources concentration of naturally occurring solid, liquid, or gaseous material in or on the Earth's crust that can be extracted and processed into useful material at an affordable cost
Coal, oil, natural cases, energy resources, uranium, geothermal energy are____ _____ Mineral Resources
Metallic mineral resources iron, copper, aluminum
Nonrenewable coal, uranium, oil
Renewable Resources can be replenished within a human life span ie. sun's energy, water, and oxygen
Nonmetallic mineral resource examples? Salt, gypsum, clay, sand, phosphate, water, and soil
Ore metal yielding material that can be economically extracted at a given time
Undiscovered reources potential supplies of a mineral resources that are assumed to exist on the basis of geologic knowledge and theory
Reserves identified resources thta can be extracted economicaly at currnet prices with current technology
Other Resources identified & undiscovered resources not classified as reserves
How to find minerals to mine for plate tectonics, mineral formations, aerial photos, satellite images, etc
Subsurface mining removes deep deposits
Surface Mining removes shallow deposits
In surface mining, ___ is stripped away as unwanted and piled into ______ overburden, spoils
Open-pit Mining Machines dig open-pits, create windy path, and mine; used for copper, iron, sand, gravel, and building stone
Dredging Draglines scrape up underwater deposits
Area-Strip Mining Mining in strips
Contour Strip Mining Terraces are cut, Earthmover mines a terrace at a time and dumps overburden on already mined terrace creating spoil banks
Mountaintop Removal Used to extract coal, mountaintop is blown off and spoils go between mountains
Heap Leach Extraction Steps 1)Gold is put into pile/HEAP 2)They let acidified cyanide drip/LEACH thru pile, 3)Solution dissolves gold, 4)Gold is retrieved thru electrolysis
S vs. SS Mining: More destructive Surface
S vs. SS Mining: More dangerous Subsurface
S vs. SS Mining: alot's left in the ground Subsurface
Longwall Mining miners dig deep vertical shaft, blast subsurface tunnels and chambers to get to the deposits, MOST COMMONLY USED
Pros/Cons of Longwall Mining P: less disruptive, less wate Con: lung diseases from inhalation, dangerous, expensive
Room-and-pillar Method pillars prevent mining from collapsing, they're knocked down in the end
Long-Wall Method Narrow tunnel is dug and then supported by movable pillars, pillars are removed when mining's done, earth collapses
Mining Environmental Impacts Disturbed land/habitat, accidents, health hazards, mine waste dumping, oil spills, blowouts, noise, ugliness, heat, pollutes watersheds
Gangue waste mineral materials
Benefication separation in a mill of ore from gangue to produces tailings
tailing ugly piles of material from which toxic materials can be blown, leached, contaminate surface and groundwater
Impacts of Processing Solid wstes, radioactive material is dug up, air, water, soil pollition, noise, safety, health hazzards
Smelting produces air pollutants like ______. sulfur dioxide, soot, tiny particles of arsenic, cadmium, lead, etc. all are toxic
Mining machinery uses fossil fuels, which emits ____, causing ___ ____ because its a greenhouse gas Co2, global warming
Use of Mined Minerals (transportation, use, discarding) heat, safety & health hazards, solid & radioactive waste, thermal water pollution, noise, ugliness
US 1872 Mining Law is what? Mining companies can purchase public lands at the 1872 price, mind, and pay NO rent/royalties to extract except natural gas & oil
How should we change the 1972 Mining Law? Set strict standards to prevent/control pollution, environmental degradation, require companies to pay to fix the lands, require mining companies to pay 12.5% royalty on all minerals removed
SMCRA 1977 stands for what? Service Mining Control & Reclamation Act
What does SMCRA do? "If you mine and destroy an are, you have to fix it"
Created by: kittycrunk