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Forensic Science

TermDefinition
He created the first scientific system of personal identification. Alphonse Bertillon
He started the first crime lab, in France. Edmund Locard
He created a method to analyze DNA for identification, which has been used in many cases. Sir Alec Jeffreys
This principle states that when a criminal comes in contact with an object or person, a transfer of evidence occurs. Locard’s Exchange Principle
He made the first definitive survey of fingerprints and their classification. Francis Galton
This part of the crime lab analyzes DNA, plants, hairs, and fibers. Biology Unit
This part of the crime lab analyzes guns, bullets, bullet casings, trajectories, and may also analyze tools. Ballistics or Firearms Unit
This part of the crime lab uses physics, chemistry, and geology to analyze evidence. Physical Science Unit
This part of the crime lab examines body fluids or found objects for drugs and poisons. Toxicology Unit
This part of the crime lab examines the relationship between human behavior and legal proceedings. Forensic Psychiatry Unit
This part of the crime lab examines the shotgun shell Firearms Unit
This part of the crime lab examines blood Biology Unit or Serology Unit
This part of the crime lab examines skeleton (no flesh) Anthropologist
This part of the crime lab examines a small sample of white powder Toxicologist
This part of the crime lab examines Carpet Fiber Biology Unit
These laws deal with offenses against an individual that are deemed offensive to society Criminal Laws
This type of law deals with relationships between individuals (property, contracts) Civil Law
In a criminal case, The prosecution’s arguments are convincing, but still leave room for confusion and uncertainty. The defendant is found “not guilty.” What standard of proof is this? Beyond a Reasonable Doubt
The plaintiff has more convincing evidence on his side than the defendant. The defendant is found to be liable. What standard of proof is this? Preponderance of Evidence
This case made the trial judge the “gatekeeper” to admit scientific testimony or expert witnesses in court. Daubert vs. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals
Name one of the two substances whose analyses has been an important factor in the expansion of crime labs. DNA or drugs
A person who is called on to give an educated opinion, in court, using information and training that the average person may not have. Expert Witness
Explain, using two technical vocabulary terms, why it is possible for a person to be found “not guilty” in criminal court, but “liable” in civil court, in the case of murder/death. (For example, OJ Simpson) The jury in the criminal case could not find him guilty beyond a reasonable doubt, but the plaintiff’s case had a preponderance of the evidence in the civil case.
Created by: teacherkristine