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Nursing Foundations

2730 Midterm 1

QuestionAnswer
What did Florence Nightingale do? Founder of modern nursing Introduced sanitary science
Why did we move towards hospital based nursing? 1930, economic depression Nursing shortage Increase of medical technology
Name 5 things nursing is: caring, an art, a science , client centred, holistic, adaptive, concerned with health promotion, maintenance and restoration, a helping profession
What is included in the scope of Nursing Practice? (4) -promoting health and wellness - preventing illness - restoring health - caring for the dying
Name 5 of the RN roles -Direct care provider and technical expert - educator - theory developer -researcher - role model - clarifier (interpreter, communicator) - care coordinator/case manager - counselor - advocate
List the criteria's of a profession - a well-defined body of knowledge - specialized education - orientation to serving others (altruism) - oversight from professional organization - autonomy/ self-regulation
What do the Standards of Nursing Practice mean/do? - mandatory - applies to all RN's - reflects the values of nursing - provides guidelines for decision making - clarifies and defines expectations - informs the public - provides benchmarks - are used as legal reference
What are Roach's 6 C's of human caring? - comportment - compassion - commitment - competence -confidence -conscience
Comportment the way or manner in which one conducts oneself
Values Enduring beliefs or attitudes about the worth of a person, object, idea, or action. May be unspoken or even unconscious. Influence our decisions and our actions
What does health mean? A process of adaptation to physical and social environment. Individualized perception Complete physical, mental, and social state of well-being
What does well-being mean? Subjective perception of vitality and feeling well — Described objectively, experienced, measured — Can be plotted on a continuum
Clinical Model Narrowest interpretation of health. views people as physiological systems with related functions, and health is identified by the absence of signs and symptoms of disease or injury.
Role-Performance Model Health is defined in terms of an individual’s ability to fulfill societal roles, that is, to perform his or her work People who can fulfill their roles are healthy even if they have clinical illness
Adaptive Model health is a creative process; disease is a failure in adaptation, or maladaptation aim of treatment is to restore the ability of the person to adapt, that is, to cope
Agent-Host environment Model used to identify risk factors that result from the interaction of agent, host, and environment balanced variables = health maintained; Variables are not in balance = disease
Illness-wellness continua A continuum scale that ranges from optimal health to premature death. People move back and forth.
Health Belief Model The assumption that healthrelated action depends on the occurrence of 3 beliefs at 1 time: 1motivation to make health issues seen as important 2that one is vulnerable to a health problem/consequences 3that a specific health recommendation is beneficial
Illness Highly personal state. - acute or chronic Person’s physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental, or spiritual functioning is diminished Not synonymous with disease ; may or may not relate to disease.
Disease Alteration in bodily functions. Reduction of capacities or shortening of normal life.
People-Centred Care - conscious adoption of the perspectives of individuals, families and communities, to participate and benefit from, health systems in a humane and holistic ways. -Requires people have the education and support needed for decisions and participate.
Patient Centred Care Patient may be seen as disease/illness focused. Possible hierarchical relationship between health care professionals and patients/families
Relational Inquiry - Provides tools for uncovering the blind spots that may limit a clear view of the picture. - A practice of attention, focusing and acting more conscious.
Relational Consciousness A look beyond the surface of people, situations and relationships to recognize the interpersonal, intrapersonal, and contextual factors, which may shape the nurse-client interaction
Inquiry as a form of action Inquiry requires critical examination of the relational experiences of people, the situational contexts, and any pertinent information to bring about more effective outcome
What are the 5 C's of Ontological Capacities? - compassion - curiosity - commitment - competence -Correspondence
State the difference between Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Interpersonal - refers to relationships or actions that take place between two or more people while - Intrapersonal- refers to things that go on exclusively within one person.
Name 4 types of knowledge - scientific = empirical knowing -therapeutic = personal knowing - moral/ethical = ethical knowing - creative = aesthetic knowing
What is communication? A two-way exchange: verbal, nonverbal, written or electronic
What is involved in the communication process? -sender - message - receiver - response or feedback
Therapeutic communication promotes understanding, helps to establish a constructive relationship, goal directed, shows client views, feelings, and thoughts, attentive listening and physical attending
What does SOLER stand for? S- face the client Squarely O - adopt an Open posture L - Lean towards the other E- maintain good Eye contact R- Relatively Relaxed in these behaviours.
What are 4 phases of the helping relationship? What do they include? 1pre-interaction- review, consider concerns, develop plan 2introductory- sets tone & observation- trust 3working- Stages 1: explore & understand 2 -facilitating & action 4Termination - Summarize. Discuss early
Assertive Communication promotes client safety by minimizing miscommunication with colleagues.
Non-assertive Communication - 2 ways Submissive - meet demands and requests of others without regard to their own feelings Aggressive - blaming, delivered in a rushed manner, and ineffective.
Incivility rude, discourteous, or disrespectful behaviour that reflects a lack of regard for others.
Lateral Violence describe physical, verbal, or emotional abuse or aggression directed at coworkers at the same organizational level
Bullying abusive, intimidating treatment of someone who is in a vulnerable position or a position with less power.
Health Literacy The ability to access, comprehend, evaluate and communicate information as a way to promote, maintain and improve health in a variety of settings across the life-course.
List 5 strategies for improving health literacy (HL) communication. -Structure care for HL challenges -Use plain language , Avoid jargon -Ask patient to repeat info back Encourage questions -Consider language, literacy & culture -Use materials&people to help navigate buildings&systems -Keep the social stigma in mind
Acute illness is typically characterized by severe symptoms of relatively short duration. Symptoms appear abruptly and subside quickly
Chronic llness is one that lasts for an extended period, usually 6 months or longer, and often for the person’s lifetime Often have slow onset and periods of: Remission =when the symptoms disappear Exacerbation = when the symptoms reappear
Beliefs ( opinions) are interpretations or conclusions that people accept as true. They are based more on faith than on fact and may or may not be true
Ethics a system of values and beliefs for determining right or wrong and for making judgments about what should be done to or for other human beings
Utilitarianism views a good act as one that bring the most good and least harm for the most amount of people (principle of utility) Used for funding
What are the 5 caring processes to guide nursing interventions? (Swanson) 1 Knowing - 2 Being with - 3 Doing for - 4 Enabling - 5 Maintaining belief
Created by: holly.319