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drmccann-Geology

Layers of the Earth

TermDefinition
Tectonic Plate One of the giant, moving slabs that make up Earth's lithosphere which slowly moves carrying the continental drift
Plate Boundary The area where 2 tectonic plates border each other
Theory of Plate Tectonics The theory that Earth's lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates that move and interact
Continental Drift The continual movement or drifting of the continents which are a result of convection currents within the mantle
Lithosphere A layer of huge moving slabs of Earth's crust (plates) and the uppermost part of the mantle
Asthenosphere The part of Earth's Mantle that is soft, but still solid molten rock which moves the lithosphere plates above
Core The inner most and densest layer of Earth,made up of two parts: the inner core and the outer core
Subduction A process by which a dense tectonic plate is pushed beneath a less dense plate, often creating trenches, subduction zones, and volcanoes.
Convection Current The movement of a gas or liquid in a circular path
Continental Crust Type of rock made of mostly granites
Fold Collision of crust that bends rock layers "stress"
Seismograph An instrument used to measure the shaking caused by an earthquake
Earthquakes The shaking that occurs when rock in Earth's crust moves or breaks and quickly releases pressure
Plate Tectonics The Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections called plates. These plates float on the mantle like rafts (moving very slowly)
Archipelago A group of volcanic islands formed from ocean crust convergence
Richter Scale A scale for measuring earthquake magnitude
Hotspot An area of volcanic activity that is not near a plate boundary
Tsunami A giant ocean wave generated by a submarine, earthquake, volcano, or landslide
Divergent Boundary A plate boundary in which two plates move apart from each other
Inner Core Made almost entirely of solid iron with a small amount of nickel
Mantle The layer of Earth below the crust and above the outer core
Volcano An opening in the Earth's crust through which molten magma and gases erupt
Epicenter The point on the Earth's surface that is directly above the hypocenter or focus
Pangea The super continent
Crust Earth's outermost and least dense layer
Fault A break in Earth's crust, with movement along the break
Caldera Large crater caused by the violent explosion of a volcano that collapses into a depression
Outer Core Made of liquid iron and nickel
Oceanic Crust Type of crust made of mostly basalt
Transform Boundary Where two plates are sliding horizontally past one another
Convergent Boundary A plate boundary in which two plates collide
Composition The chemicl makeup of a substance. The composition of the crust, mantle, and core are different.
Lava Melted rock that reaches Earth's surface
Magma Melted rock located below Earth's surface
Mass The amount of matter in an object
Sea-floor Spreading The formation of new crust where two ocean plates pull apart (diverge) from each other
Theory A scientific explanation of related observations
Created by: deleted user