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Genetics/Biotech/Natural Selection

Chromosomes Rod shaped; made of threadlike strands of compacted DNA; 46 total; 23 from mom, 23 from dad
Mutations a change in the DNA bases
Traits specific characteristics
Genes segments of DNA that codes for a protein which codes for a trait
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid; blueprints for life
Adenine pairs with Thymine
Thymine pairs with Adenine
Cytosine pairs with Guanine
Guanine pairs with Cytosine
Heredity the passing of characteristics from parents to offspring
Nucleotide is composed of 3 parts deoxyribose sugar, phosphates, and a nitrogen base
Makes up the backbone of DNA deoxyribose sugar and phosphates
Where DNA is located inside the cell nucleus
Shape of DNA double helix
Punnett Square Tool used to predict the possible genotypes and phenotypes for the offspring of two known parents
Genotype Combination of alleles
Phenotype Physical characteristic
Homozygous alleles are the same (AA, aa)
Heterozygous alleles are different (Aa)
Alleles a form of a gene
Genetic Engineering manipulating an organism's genetic material
Selective Breeding artificial selection; develop a new organism with desirable traits
Inbreeding bred from closely related organisms
Gene Splicing genes are inserted into the DNA of a different organism
Genetically Engineered Organs single cell used to make organ to treat a patient in need of a transplant
Genetic Screening testing individuals for hereditary diseases
Gene Therapy technique that uses genes to treat/prevent disease
Hybridization interbreeding populations to produce a hybrid
Cloning Making an identical copy
Genetically Modified Foods DNA within food is altered in an unnatural way
Transgenic Organism organism is transformed with a foreign DNA
Stem Cell Therapy the use of stem cells to treat/prevent a disease/condition
Variation Different ways that a trait can be expressed
Overproduction Each species produces more offspring than can survive
Adaptation Some variations make individuals better fit for survival allowing them to reproduce and pass favorable traits to offspring
Survival of the fittest natural selection; individuals best suited for their environment; can survive and reproduce
Natural Selection Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
Competition Takes place when there are not enough resources (food, territory, mates, etc.) for all members of a species to survive. Can be between two different species or between members of the same species.
Created by: lwebber5
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