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Sterns Plant Bio 1

what is science? Science is a set of methods through which we investigate the natural universe
What distinguishes science from other methods of inquiry about the universe? It’s empirical… Based on measurable observations, Propositions should be falsifiable., The results of scientific tests must be repeatable to be accepted.
Hypothesis Proposed explanation. Must be subject to quantitative testing; tests must be repeatable by others
Theory Well-supported explanations of an aspect of the natural world. Often a comprehensive set of ideas.
Independent variable a variable (often denoted by x ) whose variation does not depend on that of another.
Dependent variable a variable (often denoted by y ) whose value depends on that of another.
Control Variable an experimental element which is constant and unchanged throughout the course of the investigation. ... The control variables themselves are not of primary interest to the experimenter.
Treatment groups these groups receive the experiment
Control Groups these groups do Not receive the experiment
A few points to consider Consider sample size and experimental design (variables?), Is there an appropriate control group?, Did the researcher account for possible control variables?
Experimental studies the researcher controls the independent variables.
Observational studies the independent variable is not controlled by researcher – look for correlations
Simulation or modeling study a process is described, mathematically or simulated by a computer model. Usually complex systems. Requires knowledge of relevant variables; developed by experiment or observation. Usually use past conditions to predict future ones
How can we evaluate scientific claims? 1. How accurate is the media source? 2. How reliable is the science?
Media source considerations How reputable or biased is the media source? Does the media accurately represent the original research? What is specifically stated, and what is implied or inferred?
molecules groups of atoms linked together by chemical bonds
matter is characterized by 1. it occupies space 2. it has mass 3. it is composed of elements
atom the smallest stable subdivision of an element that can exist
nucleus each eukaryote (only eukaryotes) has this, consists of protons and neutrons
protons particles with positive electric charges
neutrons particles that have no electrical charges
atomic number a specific number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic mass the combined number of protons and neutrons
electrons negative electric charges that whirl around the nucleus of an atom
orbital the region occupied by electrons around the nucleus
isotopes each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, and hence differ in relative atomic mass but not in chemical properties; a radioactive form of an element.
polar molecules A polar molecule is a chemical species in which the distribution of electrons between the covalently bonded atoms is not even
adhesion attraction of charged molecules to different types of charged molecules
Valence the ability of an element to combine with another one based on electron number
ions positively and negatively charged particles
What are the three biologically significant types of chemical bonds? 1. Ionic bonds 2. Covalent bonds (nonpolar or polar) 3. Hydrogen bonds
Ionic Bonds One atom transfers an electron to another, results in ions, Two ions attract each other, Found in salts, acids and bases
Covalent Bonds Atoms share electrons, Stronger than ionic or hydrogen bonds, Don’t dissolve in water, strongest bond
Polar Covalent Bonds Bonds that are more covalent (more even) are stronger; bonds that are more ionic (less even) are weaker. Polar molecules result when molecules are asymmetrical
Hydrogen Bonds form as a result of attraction between positively charged hydrogen atoms in polar molecules and negatively charged atoms in other polar molecules. Weak (7 to 10% the strength of covalent bonds), cause both cohesion and adhesion in water
Cohesion some molecules of the same type are attracted to each other
What are the 4 main types of *organic (*contains carbon) polymers (macromolecules)? 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids
Carbohydrates Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CH2O)𝑛 or 1C:2H:1O
Monosaccharides (type of carbon) Simple sugars, 3 to 6 carbon atoms
What are some examples of monosaccharides? Glucose and fructose!
Glucose Main product of photosynthesis, important source of energy in all living cells
Disaccharides (type of carbon) 2 linked monosaccharides, Short-term energy storage, Main sugar transported through plants
What are some examples of Disaccharides ? Sucrose, lactose
Polysaccharides (type of carbon) More than 2 monosaccharides linked, Most common organic compound
What are some examples of polysaccharides ? Starch for long-term storage in plants Cellulose – main structural polymer in plant cell walls
Lipids Fats, oils, waxes. Most lipids don’t dissolve in water because they are nonpolar
Phospholipids form a double-layered sheet in water – basis for membranes!
whats unique about phospholipids? Molecule has a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail
Proteins consist of one or more polypeptide chains (and sometimes additions) Denaturing proteins can alter structure and function
Primary structure of proteins The order of the amino acids in the chain
Secondary Structure of Proteins The strand of amino acids twists to form a helix
Tertiary Structure of Proteins The three-dimensional structure formed by the folding of the helix
polypeptides Chains of amino acids
enzymes Speeds up chemical reactions. Usually splits or joins other molecules (substrates)
where do essential amino acids come from our diet
Living things share a few characteristics in common ATP used for energy storage, DNA used as information storage
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells both have Cell wall (in plants and lots of other organisms, but not all), Protoplasm, Plasma membrane, Cytoplasm, and Cytoskeleton
Eukaryotes only have Nucleus
cell wall (in plants and lots of other organisms, but not all)
Protoplasm components inside cell wall (Plasma membrane, Cytoplasm {Cytosol Components suspended in cytosol} , Nucleus)
Cells interface with the outside world through this plasma membrane
Plasma Membrane Double layer of phospholipids with embedded proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates
Eukaryotes have: Nucleus, Organelles
Eukaryotes: Nucleus Nuclear envelope with nuclear pores and DNA
Eukaryotes: Internal membranes Endoplasmic reticulum and others
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum studded with ribosomes
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum secretes lipids
Golgi Apparatus modifications , packaging in to vesicles, delivery
Eukaryotes: Organelles include : mitochondria, DNA , Cellular respiration
Features of plant cells: Cell walls with cellulose polysaccharides- mostly cellulose, green algae and plants, cross linked by other molecules
Features of plant cells: Chloroplasts and other plastids photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts
Chromoplast Synthesis and storage of carotenoid pigments
Vacuoles Water balance and internal pressure, Storage (Sugars, proteins, Pigments, Toxins), Inorganic crystals
Mitosis a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
Whats the first phase of Mitosis ? Prophase
Whats the second phase of Mitosis ? Metaphase
Whats the third phase of Mitosis ? Anaphase
Whats the fourth phase of Mitosis ? Telophase
What happens during Prophase ? Condensation of chromosomes is completed, chromosomes become visible as “threads”, Nuclear envelope dissolves, Spindle fibers develop (anchored at the poles)
What happens during Metaphase ? Spindle fibers attach to centromeres, pull chromosomes to equator of cell.
What happens during Anaphase ? Sister chromatids separate at centromeres; one sister chromatid is pulled to each end
What happens during Telophase ? Nuclear envelope re-forms around chromosomes at each end of cell, End up with 2 nuclei, each with complete set of chromosomes, Chromosomes become indistinct
What happens during anaphase and telophase ? the cell divides by cytokinesis, Vesicles fuse along center line of cell, Cell plate forms in the center of cell and expands toward cell margins
Cytokinesis the cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.
Phragmoplast scaffold of microtubules and endoplasmic reticulum
Monocots a flowering plant with an embryo that bears a single cotyledon (seed leaf)
dicots a flowering plant with an embryo that bears two cotyledons (seed leaves)
Cotyledons Embryonic leaves or “seed leaves” of embryo
How many Cotyledons does a monocot have ? 1 cotyledon
How many Cotyledons does a dicot have ? 2 cotyledons
Are grasses monocots or dicots ? monocots
Are woody plants monocots or dicots ? dicots
Cell elongation Plant growth by water uptake
New cells are produced in regions called meristems
Meristematic cells are undifferentiated and actively divide (similar to stem cells in animals)
Division in meristematic cells produces: More meristematic cells , Cells that will differentiate (mature) into other tissues
Apical meristems Present in all plants, responsible for growth in length (primary growth), Tips of roots and shoots – in buds, Produces primary meristems, protected by buds in stems
What are the primary apical meristems ? Protoderm, Ground meristem, Procambium
Protoderm develops into dermal tissues
Ground meristem develops into ground tissues
Procambium develops into vascular tissues
What do apical buds produce ? hormones that suppress branching in nearby buds
apical buds the primary growing point located at the apex (tip) of the stem. It is the dominant bud, since it can cause all the Axillary (lateral) buds below them to remain dormant.
axillary bud an embryonic or organogenic shoot located in the axil (side) of a leaf. Each bud has the potential to form shoots, and may be specialized in producing either vegetative shoots (stems and branches) or reproductive shoots
Lateral meristems only in woody plants, responsible for growth in diameter (secondary growth), cylinders in stems and roots
What are the two types of lateral meristems ? Vascular cambium and Cork cambium
Vascular cambium produces vascular tissues (for transport)
Cork cambium produces cork (outer bark)
Intercalary meristems primary growth, grasses only, Length of stems or leaves, Band of pale tissue at nodes or base of leaves (collar)
what are the benefits of asexual reproduction ? reproductive assurance, Avoid the “cost of males” (every individual can produce offspring. Avoid investing resources in strategies to get gametes (sperm and eggs) together
vegetative reproduction asexual reproduction in which the offspring arise from parts of the parent plant.
what does asexual reproduction produce ? a clone of the parent, Asexual reproduction also occurs through mitosis
what are the advantages of sexual reproduction ? offers an opportunity to remove “bad” versions of a gene from the population, Sexual reproduction allows for genetic recombination and more variability among individuals.
Under what circumstances would you expect sexual reproduction to be favored? The environment is changing, Specialized pathogens or other natural enemies are present
which method has the most advantages/disadvantages of asexual reproduction ? selfing- or self pollination
meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
Created by: 1268511196664965



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