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Music Concepts

The Six Concepts of Music

Structure The way the piece is constructed.
Binary Form Refers to a composition with two main section, called Section A and Section B.
Ternary Form Has three sections, Section A, Section B, then a return to Section A.
Rondo Form Has many sections. It starts with a main theme or statement Section A, followed by a number of new sections. This form is ABACADAE etc.
Theme & Variations Is similar to rondo form. The main theme is usually a distinctive melody, which is then changed and adapted in subsequent sections.
Through Composed The piece does not repeat any material.
Strophic Form A form where there are several verses, each with different words but the same basic musical accompaniment.
Verse Chorus Form Used in popular music. This form uses verses, choruses, bridges, solo's, into's and outgo's.
12 Bar BLues Uses chords 1, 4 and 5in the following format: I I I I IV IV I I V IV I V
Tone Colour The quality of sound.
change of Instrumentation The tone colour changes every time the line up of instruments change.
Change of Dynamics The tone colour may change depending on the dynamic level it is played at.
Western Instruments Woodwind, Brass, Percussion, Strings
Woodwind (No Reed) Piccolo, Flute
Woodwind (Single Reed) Clarinet, Bass Clarinet, Soprano Saxophone, Alto Saxophone, Tenor Saxophone, Baritone Saxophone
Woodwind (Double Reed) Oboe, Cor Anglis, Clarinet, Bassoon
Strings Violin, Viola, Cello, Double Bass, Harp, Guitar, Bass Guitar, Electric Guitar, Banjo, Ukulele
Brass Cornet, Trumpet, Trombone, Bass Trombone, French Horn, Tuba
Percussion (Drums) Bass Drum, Snare Drum, Conga's, Bongo's, Timpani
Percussion (Keyboard) Piano, Xylophone, Marimba, Glockenspiel, Tubula Bells, Vibraphone
Percussion (Auxiliary) Slide Whistle, Kazoo, Triangle, Tambourine, Wood Blocks, Gong, Egg Shakers, Ratchet, Vibraslap, Anvil, Agogo Bells, Bell Tree, Guiro
Non-Western Instruments Aerophones, Membranophones, Chordophones, Idiophones, Electric Sounds.
Aerophones Any instrument which uses a vibrating column of air.
Membranophones Any instrument which uses a vibrating membrane stretched across a hollow body.
Chordophones Any instrument which uses a vibrating string.
Idiophones Percussion Instruments.
Electric Sounds Any sound created by electronic means.
Six Concepts of Music Structure, Tone Colour, Dynamic and Expressive Techniques, Pitch, Duration, Texture
Dynamics Volume Level
Pianissimo (pp) Very Soft
Piano (p) Soft
Mezzo Piano (mp) Moderately Soft
Mezzo Forte (mf) Moderately Loud
Forte (f) Loud
Fortissimo (ff) Very Loud
Sforzando (sfz) Loud and Forcefully
Crescendo To gradually get louder.
Decrescendo To gradually get softer
Expressive Techniques Legato, Staccato, Accent, Vibrato, Tremolo, Tenuto, Glissando
Legato Smoothly and well connected.
Staccato Short and detached.
Accent Stressing or emphasising the note or chord.
Vibrato vibrating or slightly shaking the sound, creating a tiny variation in pitch.
Tremolo The quick repetition of the same note.
Tenuto Drawing out the full length of each note.
Glissando A rapid scale played in a sliding motion.
Texture The layers of sound in a piece.
Monophonic Texture A single layer, one melodic line, unison.
Homophonic Texture Two layers, a melody line with a chordal accompaniment.
Polyphonic Texture Multiple layers, many melodic lines playing at the same time, complex melodies and counter melodies.
Unison When two or more instruments play the same note at the same pitch.
Doubling Occurs when the same melody is played by more than one instrument an octave apart.
Imitation Occurs when a melody or melodic fragment is copied with another instrument.
Call and Response Occurs when a solo instrument makes a melodic statement or "call" and a larger group replies with a different statement.
Similar Motion Occurs when melodic contour of two melodies is the same.
Contrary Motion Means that melodies move in opposite directions.
Duration The different lengths of times.
Rhythm Patterns of long and short sounds.
Polyrhythm Refers to the uses of two or more conflicting rhythm patterns or accents at the same time.
Cross rhythm A type of polyrhythm where two metres are played at the same time. Mostly cross rhythms are used when 3/4 is played against 6/8.
Ostinato A repeated rhythmic pattern
Riff A short repeated phrase. ONLY used in popular music.
Free Rhythm Describe music where the beat is indefinite.
Beat The main time of a unit of a composition.
Pulse The underlying pattern of strong beats.
Metre The way beats are grouped together and measured.
Bar A group of beats.
Anacrusis A note(s) occurring before the first beat of the first bar of a composition. These notes together with the notes in the incomplete last bar add to create one complete bar of music.
Time Signature Numbers used at the beginning of a composition to explain the metre, or how many beats are in each bar.
Simple Time Based on simple, or whole beats lake crotchets or minims (e.g. 2/4, 3/4, 4/4)
Compound Time Passed on dotted beats, such as dotted crotchets. (e.g. 6/8, 9/8, 12/8)
Multimetre Where some pieces use numerous changes in time signature in quick succession.
Accent Means emphasis or stress. Achieved by playing one note or chord louder than the others.
Syncopation Occurs when the accent is on the weaker beats.
Backbeat Is a feature of rock, popular and rhythm and blues music.
Pitch The highness and lowness of sound.
Melody Is a series of pitches, one after the other.
Scale A series of pitches based on a main, or "home" pitch. Usually there are 8 pitches in a scale, ascending and descending by step.
Major Scale Tone, Tone, Semitone, Tone, Tone, Tone, Semitone
Minor Scale Tone, Semitone, Tone, Tone, Semitone, Tone and a Half, Semitone.
Chromatic Scale Consisting of all semitones
Pentatonic Scale Consisting of 5 notes, usually scale degrees 1 2 4 5 6.
Mode Aeolian (Minor), Lydian, Phrygian, Ionian (major), Dorian, Mixolydian, Locrian
Aeolian (Minor) Tone, Semitone, Tone, Tone, Tone, Semitone, Tone, Tone.
Lydian Tone, Tone, Tone, Semitone, Tone, Tone, Semitone.
Phrygian Semitone, Tone, Tone, Tone, Semitone, Tone, Tone.
Ionian (Major) Tone, Tone, Semitone, Tone, Tone, Tone, Semitone.
Dorian Tone, Semitone, Tone, Tone, Tone, Semitone, Tone.
Mixolydian Tone, Tone, Semitone, Tone, Tone, Semitone, Tone
Locrian Semitone, Tone, Tone, Semitone, Tone, Tone, Tone.
Raga A type of scale used in Indian music, often with different patterns for ascending and descending parts.
Semitone The distance between one pitch and he pitch closest to it.
Tone The distance between two semitones.
Imitation Where a part of the melody or an entire melody is copied exactly by another instrument.
Repetition The main melody of a composition is played more than once.
Ostinato A repeated pattern of note.
Sequence A fragment or motif that is repeated at different pitches.
Onamentation The frilly bits added to a melody to make it sound more interesting.
Improvisation To create music at the time of the performance.
Phrase A musical sentence. Contains pat or all of the melody.
Motif A part of the melody that has an important roll in a composition.
Fragment A section of the melody which is shorter than a phrase.
Range The distance from the lowest note to the highest note.
Interval The distance between two pitches.
Contour The shape of the melody. It can be ascending or descending and it can move in steps, skips and leaps. This is a good one to draw.
Types of Melody Counter Melody, Call and Response, Question and Answer, Cannon
Counter Melody A second contrasting melody that is played at the same time and the main melody.
Call and Response "Call" is a melodic phrase that changes and is followed by a "response" that is the same each time.
Question and Answer "Question" is a melodic phrase that is not resolved, and ends with an interrupted or imperfect cadence.
Cannon A melodic construction where the tune or theme is introduced, then a few bars later, another instrument or line plays the same melody, followed by another instrument and another etc.
Harmony (tonality) Most compositions rebased on one pitch acts as a "home".
Harmony (modulation) Modulation is temporarily changing the home key.
Harmony (chords) Where three or more notes are played together.
Chord Progression The name of a pattern of chords.
Rate of Harmonic Change The rate the music moves from one chord to the next.
Harmony (Cadence) Perfect Cadence, Plagal Cadence, Interrupted Cadence, Imperfect Cadence.
Consonant Harmony Pleasant to the ear.
Dissonant Harmony Unpleasant to hear.
W W W What is Happening? Where is it Happening? Why is it important and how?
Created by: lacey.bowden1



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