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Unit 2 Part 2

Skeletal, Muscular, Digestive, Excretory, Integumentary

TermDefinition
Skeletal System makes a solid framework of bones and connective tissues to support the body. Protects the body tissues and internal organs. Anchors skeletal muscles. Primary organs are bones and joints.
Functions of Skeletal System Support and Protect, Movement, Production of red blood cells, Storage, & Homeostasis.
Bone Tissue compact bone, spongy bone, bone marrow, and periosteum
Joints Holds the skeleton together and support movement
Ligaments Attach bone to bone and made of dense layered collagen fibers
Tendons Attach muscle to bone and made of dense layered collagen fibers
Muscular System 640 muscles that allows movement, maintains posture, stabilizes joints, and generates heat.
Voluntary Movement Controlled consciously by a person such as speaking, walking, and writing
Involuntary Movement Controlled by the unconscious part of the brain such as heartbeat, intestine moving waste, breathing
Cardiac Muscle form the wall of the heart and controls your heartbeat, involuntary.
Smooth Muscle (visceral) weakest of all muscle tissues found in organs and perform unique functions like grinding, churning, or moving, involuntary.
Skeletal Muscle connect to the skeleton in at least one place to move parts of bones closer to each other, voluntary.
Digestive System A group of organs working together to turn food into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair.
Mouth The beginning of the digestive system, where physical and chemical changes occur to food.
Pharynx (Throat) Passage from nose and mouth to the larynx and esophagus that is part of the digestive and respiratory systems.
Esophagus Muscular tube connecting the throat to the stomach that uses peristalsis to move food.
Stomach J-shaped muscular sac-like organ that stores food and grinds and mixes it into a liquid containing hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes.
Small Intestine Long tube about 1 inch in diameter and 20 feet long that absorbs nutrients and transfers those nutrients into the blood stream.
Large Intestine (Colon) Long thick tube about 2 1/2 inches in diameter and about 5 feet long that absorbs nutrients and water into the blood stream. It also processes waste so that it is easy to defecate.
Rectum The final function of the digestive system that receives stool from the colon and holds stool until it is evacuated.
Peristalsis Smooth muscle contraction creating wave-like movements that push the contents of the canal forward.
Excretory System The main function is to filter blood and remove liquid waste from the body.
Kidney Organs that filters waste products out of the blood passing through them.
Ureters Muscular tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
Bladder Pear shaped organ that holds urine to allow for urination to be infrequent and voluntary.
Urethra Passage way through which urine is discharged from the bladder out of the body.
Integumentary System Group of organs comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or damages from outside.
Skin Largest organ of the human body that protects the network of muscles, bones, nerves, blood vessels, and everything else inside our bodies.
Epidermis Top layer of skin cells that are completely replaced about every 28 days.
Dermis Middle layer of skin which is made up of blood vessels, nerve endings, and connective tissue and nourishes the epidermis layer.
Subcutaneous Tissue Deepest layer of skin made up of connective tissue, sweat glands, blood vessels, and cells that store fat which helps protect the body from blows and other injuries while it helps hold in body heat.
Melanin The pigment that gives skin its color.
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