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Cell Division

Leaving Cert Biology

QuestionAnswer
Name the structures made of DNA and protein that are found in the nucleus Chromosomes
When chromosomes are present as long thin threads, what are they called Chromatin
When chromosomes are present as double strands, what are they called Chromatids
Each chromosome is composed of hundreds of small sections called what Genes
What is a gene A short section of DNA which contains the instructions for the formation of a protein
What do you call a cell that has only of each type of chromosome in the nucleus Haploid cell
What do you call a cell that has two each type of chromosome in the nucleus (one from mother and one form father) Diploid cell
What do you call a pair of chromosomes that has similar genes Homologous pairs
A halpoid cell is symbolised by what letter 'n'
A diploid cell is symbolised by what 2n
How many chromosomes are present in each human cells 46
How many chromosomes are present in sperm and egg (haploid cells) 23
Name the phase in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing and accounts for 90% of the cycle Interphase
During interphase, what shape are chromosomes Elongated (chromatin)
What happens during interphase New organelles are produced and chromosomes produce identical copies of themselves (chromatids)
What is mitosis A form of nuclear division in which one nucleus divides to form two nuclei, each containing identical sets of chromosomes
What is the rhyme that reminds you of stages in mitosis Party Monday and Tuesday
What is first phase Prophase
What happens in prophase Nucleolus disappears, nuclear membrane breaks down, spindle fibres
What is second phase Metaphase
What happens in metaphase Nuclear membrane gone, spindle fibres attach to the centromere of the chromatids and they line up along the middle of the cell
What is the centromere The point where double chromosomes meet
What is third phase Anaphase
What happens in Anaphase Spindle fibres contract causing chromatids to split, single chromosomes pulled to opposite poles
What is last phase Telophase
What happens in Telophase Chromosomes lengthen to form chromatin, spindle fibres disappear, nucleolus and nuclear membrane reappear
What term in used to describe cell division Cytokinesis
How does cytokinesis occur in animal cells Cleavage - A cleavage furrow (shallow groove) forms at center of cell, becomes deeper until cell splits
How does cytokinesis occur in plant cells Small vesicles form at center of cell, these build up to form a cell plate which then forms a wall
What is cancer A group of disorders in which certain cells lose their ability to control the rate of mitosis
What is a benign tumour Where the cells stop dividing after some time
What is a malignant tumour Life threatening beacuse they can invade other cells
What causes cancers Carcinogens - smoking, UV radiation, asbestos fibres
What is meiosis A form of double nuclear division in which the daughter nuclei contain half the chromosome number of the parent
In what cells does meiosis take place Gametes (sperm and egg)
What are the functions of meiosis Allows for chromosome number to stay the same after fertilisation and allows for genetic variations in organisms
Created by: gcu biology