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# Lesson 1.1

### Introduction to Electronics

Term | Definition | Example |
---|---|---|

Analog | A way of representing some physical quantity, such as temperature or velocity, by a proportional continuous voltage or current. An analog voltage or current can have any value within a defined range. | An example of an analog device is a thermometer. |

Breadboard | A circuit board for wiring temporary circuits, usually used for prototypes or laboratory work. | Circuits can be built using breadboards. |

Conventional Current | The direction of current flow associated with positive charge in motion. The current flow direction is from a positive to negative potential, which is in the opposite direction of electron flow. | The positive and negative symbols show the conventional current of the circuit. |

Current | A movement of electrical charges around a closed path or circuit. | Current is measured in amperes. |

Digital | A way of representing a physical quantity by a series of binary numbers. A digital representation can have only specific discrete values. | An example of a digital device is a digital clock. |

Digital Multi-meter | A piece of test equipment used to measure voltage, current, and resistance in an electronic circuit. | Digital Multimeters can do the tasks of voltmeters, ammeters and ohmmeters. |

Engineering Notation | A floating point system in which numbers are expressed as products consisting of a number greater than one multiplied by an appropriate power of ten that is some multiple of three. | 100 to the power of 3 is supposed to be 10 to the power of 6 in engineering notation. |

Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) | The algebraic sum of all currents into and out of any branch point in a circuit must equal zero. | KCL is used in a parallel circuit. |

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) | The algebraic sum of all voltages around any closed path must equal zero. | KVL is used in a series circuit. |

LED | Light-emitting diode. An electronic device that conducts current in one direction only and illuminates when it is conducting. | When current is passing, the LED is turned on. |

Ohm | Unit of resistance. Value of one ohm allow current of one ampere with potential difference of one volt. | Ohms |

Ohm's law | In electric circuits, I=V/R. | In digital electronics, Ohm's law is mainly used. |

Parallel Circuit | One that has two or more branches for separate current from one voltage source. | Voltage is the same through all resistors in a parallel circuit. |

Resistance | Opposition to current. Unit is the ohm. | A type of a resistor is a light bulb. |

Resistor Color Code | Coding system of colored stripes on a resistor to indicate the resistor's value and tolerance. | Without a resistor color code, the amount of resistance can be hard to identify. |

Scientific Notation | Numbers entered as a number from one to ten multiplied by a power of ten. | Scientific Notation is used to make numbers more easier to read and write. |

Series Circuit | One that has only one path current. | Current is the same through all resistors in a series circuit. |

Simulation | Testing design function by specifying a set of inputs and observing the resultant outputs. Simulation is generally shown as a series of input and output waveforms. | A simulation can be used to prove a theory. |

SI Notation | Abbreviation of System International, a system of practical units based on the meter, kilogram, second, ampere, Kelvin, mole, and candela. | SI Notation can be very helpful to handle very large and small numbers. |

Solder | Metallic alloy of tin and lead that is used to join two metal surfaces. | Solder is basically a metallic glue. |

Soldering | Process of joining two metallic surfaces to make an electrical contact by melting solder (usually tin and lead) across them. | When soldering there is a lot of heat. |

Soldering Iron | Tool with an internal heating element used to heat surfaces being soldered to the point where the solder becomes molten. | The soldering Iron is usually very red when soldering. |