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A & P 1

Intro to A& P

Anatomy study of form and structure of the body and parts
Physiology study of functions of the body and its parts
Macroscopic Anatomy the study of body parts large enough to be seen without magnification
Regional Anatomy A method of studying anatomy that examines all the component structures that make up each region of the body (i.e. abdominal anatomy)
Systematic Anatomy A method of studying anatomy that examines each system of the body as a separate topic (i.e. skeletal system)
Plane of Reference Any of four basic imaginary slices through an animal body oriented at right angles to each other (sagittal, median, transverse, dorsal)
Sagittal Plane Anatomic reference plane; runs lengthwise, dividing the body into left and right parts that are not necessarily equal halves
Transverse Plane Anatomic reference plane across the body that divides it into cranial and caudal parts that are not necessarily equal
Dorsal Plane Anatomic reference plane that divides the body into dorsal and ventral parts that are not necessarily equal
Medial Plane Anatomic reference plane, a sagittal plane that runs down the center of the boy and divides it into equal left and right halves (also called midsagittal plane)
Cranial Toward the head
Caudal Toward the tail
Xiphoid Process Caudal end of the sternum
Rostral Toward the tip of the nose
Dorsal Toward the animal's back
Ventral Toward the animal's belly
Medial Toward the median plane of animal's body
Lateral Away from the median plane of animal's body
Deep Toward the center of the body or body part
Superficial Toward the surface of the body or body part
Proximal Toward the body
Distal Away from the body
Carpus Joint composed of the carpal bones (knee of a horse, wrist of a human)
Tarsus Joint composed of the tarsal bones (hock in animals, ankle in humans)
Palmar Caudal surface of the forelimb from the carpus distally
Plantar Caudal surface of the hind limb from the tarsus distally
Barrel Trunk of the body formed by rib cage and abdomen
Brisket Area at the base of the neck between the front legs that covers the cranial end of the sternum
Cannon Large metacarpal or metatarsal bone of hoofed animals
Fetlock Joint between cannon bone (lg. metacarpal/ metatarsal) and the proximal phalanx of hoofed animals
Hock Tarsus
Knee Carpus of hoofed animals
Muzzle Rostral part of the face formed mainly by the maxillary and nasal bones
Pastern Area of the proximal phalanx of hoofed animals
Poll Top of the head between the bases of the ears
Stifle Femorotibial/ femorapatellar joint - equivalent to the human knee
Tailhead Dorsal part of the base of the tail
Withers Area dorsal to scapulas
Bilateral Symmetry Left and right halves of an animal's body are mirror images of each other
Orad Movement within the gastrointestinal system in the direction of the mouth
Aborad Movement within the gastrointestinal system in the direction away from the mouth
Symmetry Balance in distribution of body parts
Gastrointestinal Tract The part of the digestive tube composed of the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
Dorsal Body Cavity Contains CNS (brain and spinal cord); divided into cranial and spinal cavities
Cranial Cavity Formed from the bones of the skull and contains the brain
Spinal Cavity Formed from the vertebra and contains the spinal cord
Ventral Body Cavity Large space in the body that is divided by the thin, sheetlike diaphragm muscle into the cranial thoracic cavity and caudal abdominal cavity
Thorax Cranial thoracic cavity (chest)
Abdomen Caudal abdominal cavity (Belly)
Viscera The soft internal organs enclosed within a body cavity such as lungs kidneys and intestines
Visceral Layer Layer of the pleura or peritoneum that lies directly on the surface of organs in the thorax or abdomen
Pleura Thin layer covering the organs of the thoracic cavity
Parietal Layer Layer of the pleura that lines the whole thoracic cavity
Pleurisy Inflammation of the pleural surfaces between the visceral and parietal layers of pleura that causes the surfaces to become thick and rough
Peritoneum Thin membrane lining the abdomen and covering its contents
Peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum, the potential space between the visceral and parietal layers of the peritoneum
Cells Basic functional units of animal life
Tissues Group of cells that are similar in structure and perform the same function
Epithelial Tissue Collection of tissues that are made up of layers of cells that line and cover body surfaces
Connective Tissue Tissue made up of cells and extracellular substances that connect and support cells and other tissues
Adipose Connective Tissue Fat tissue, vascularized tissue whose general functions are to protect, insulate, and provide energy to the body
Muscle Tissue Tissue that supports the body and enables it to move, thermoregulate, and transport materials
Skeletal Muscle Multinucleated, striated , voluntary muscle that allows conscious movement of an animal
Cardiac Muscle Striated involuntary muscle found only in the heart
Smooth Muscle Non-striated involuntary muscle having only one nucleus per cell
Nervous Tissue Collection of tissues that collect, process, and convey information
Organs Group of tissues that work together for common purposes
Systems Groups of organs that are involved in a common set of activities
Digestive System Concerned with obtaining, digesting, and absorbing nutrients that fuel the rest of the body
Health A state of normal anatomy and physiology
Homeostasis Maintenance of equilibrium in the body
Equilibrium Balance
Congestive Heart Failure Heart is not pumping adequate amounts of blood
Diaphragm Muscle that separates the abdominal cavity from the chest cavity
Taxonomy Systematic classification and naming of organisms
Order Carnivora Meat eaters
Order Artiodactyla Even-toed hoofed mammals like pigs, cows, sheep, and goats
Order Perissodactyla Odd-toed hoofed mammals, like horses
Order Rodentia Rats, mice, hamsters, and squirrels
Order Lagomorpha Rabbits and hares
Species Group of individuals that can interbreed
Canis familiaris Dog
Felis domesticus Cat
Equus caballus Horse
Myocyte Muscle cells
Enterocyte Intestinal cell
Histology Branch of anatomy that deals with the microscopic structure and composition of tissues
Histopathology Study of healthy and diseased tissues
Fight-or-flight System Part of the sympathetic nervous system that helps prepare the body for intense physical activity
Anterior Toward or to the head (cranial)
Posterior Toward or pertaining to the tail rear (caudal)
Superior Toward the top of a vertical plane
Inferior Toward the bottom of a vertical plane
Created by: Beluga974



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