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UCO Bio Terms

QuestionAnswer
Metabolism All body functions (chemical reactions) Acquires energy and transforms it to a useful form
Homeostasis Maintain body functions at optimal internal state, relying on feedback systems
Binary Fission Cell division for Prokaryotic cells
Mitosis Cell division for Eukaryotic cells
Catabolism Exergonic reaction of breaking substances into smaller pieces (A part of Metabolism)
Exergonic Chem reaction that releases energy
Anabolism Endergonic reaction that builds substances from smaller components. ( A part of Metabolism)
Endergonic Chem reaction absorbing energy
Hypothalamus Part of brain that maintains homeostasis. Relies on negative and positive feedback.
Positive feedback (in Hypothalamus) Shows there is not enough of something and more is needed.
Negative feedback (in Hypothalamus) Shows there is too much of something and signals to reduce it.
Origin of Species Darwin's book on natural selection
Population Same species; same area
Community Multiple populations; shared ecosystem (just living things)
Ecosystem Living and non-living things in a shared area
Domain bacteria Procaryotes
Domain archaea Prokaryotes capable of surviving in extreme environments
Domain Eukarya Plants, animals, fungai
Linnean Taxonomy Classification system by Carolus Linnaeus
Binomial Nomenclature 2 name system based on Linnean Taxonomy
Viruses Not living organisms. Tiny parasites able to infect most cells, but aren't made of them
2 types of scientific inquiry Discovery Science (From observations) and Hypothesis-based (From analysis to conclusions)
Null Hypothesis Hypothesis predicting no difference between experimental and control group
Alternative Hypothesis Hypothesis predicting s difference between experimental and control group
Qualitative Data Based on qualities, not quantity
Quantitative Data Based on quantities, not qualities
Scientific Method 1. Observations 2. Develop Question/Identify Problem 3. Research Topic 4. Form Hypothesis 5. Experimentation 6. Collect & Analyze Data 7. Draw Conclusions 8. Communicate the results
Abstract (Scientific Article) Summary
Introducion (Scientific Article) Observations and Literature review
Materials & Methods (Scientific Article) Experimental design; defines tests to be performed
Water Versatile Solvent Large amount of substances dissolve in water due to to its polarity.
Water Temp Stabalization H-bonding allows molecules to absorb heat w/o increasing temp. Evaporative cooling allows hottest molecules to evaporate and remove heat
Water Cohesion Water surface has surface tension thanks to H-bonds.
Water Adhesion Allows water to grip other items, such as inside of stems in plants.
H+ ion pH Low pH
OH- ion pH High pH
4 main elements of life Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
Molecules of life Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids and Lipids (not a polymer)
Macromolecules Large molecules made of thousands of covalently connected atoms
Carbohydrates Main source that cells use to produce energy as ATP, Stores energy. Used for structural support and cell signaling and cell recognition.
Cellulose A Polysaccharide. Structural support in plant cell walls. Most abundant organic compound on earth. Polymer of glucose, but the glycosidic linkages differ
Chitin Modified polysaccharide that contains nitrogen. Structural support in exoskeleton of arthropods and cell walls of many fungi
Glucose Most common monosaccharide. Hydrophilic. Main blood sugar, used to generate ATP through cellular respiration.
Ribose Used to form Nucleic Acids.
Fructose Found in many plants. Often linked to glucose forming sucrose. Sweetest naturally occurring carbohydrate.
Glycosidic linkage Formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. Reaction forms a covelant bond between 2 hydroxyl groups. (Seen in Maltose and Sucrose
Disaccharides Formed by glycosidic linkage between 2 hydroxyl groups.
Polysaccharides Polymers of sugars  Storage and structural roles  Usually insoluble in water  Not sweet
Starch Storage polysaccharide of plants, consists entirely of glucose monomers (potatoes, corn, rice)
Glycogen Storage polysaccharide in animals (liver and muscle cells)
Maltose A disaccharide made up of two Glucose molecules. Easy to be broken down and used for energy.
Sucrose A disaccharide. Made up of Fructose and Glucose. Broken down to provide energy for the bodies physical and mental actions.
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