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FTCE Gen Sci1

FTCE General Science

Characteristics of good communication describe what can be observed through the senses brief precise descriptions share qualitative and quantitative observations consider receiver's point of view obtain feedback use alternative observations
serial ordering sorting along a continuum based on shared characteristics
what types of traits do classification systems use unambiguous traits
Basic SI units candela newton kelvin meter gram second mole
Inferences interpretations of observations
multistage observation classification into smaller and smaller groups
The 5 E's Engage Explain Explore Elaborate Evaluate
Single Stage Classification classification based on a single trait
parts of inquiry a problem materials for investigation a procedure for investigation a solution for the problem
Characteristics of life cellular organization irritability (response to stimuli) homeostasis metabolism growth and development reproduction
tenets of cell theory all living things are made of cells cells are the smallest unit of life cells come from other cells
stimulus any change to the environment
ways that growth occurs cell division or enlargement
3 bacterial shapes coccus sprillium bacillus
respiration/ photosynthesis equation C6H1206 + 6O2 = 6CO2 +6H20 +ENERGY (light)
2 main parts of photosynthesis light reactions; light independent reactions (Calvin cycle)
3 types of birth oviparous viviparous ovoviviparous
How does the CNS connect to the PNS via 12 cranial nerves and 31 spinal nerves
2 parts of the skeleton axial vs apendicular
What does the lymphatic system do collects fluid from organs and returns it to the circulatory system
father of genetics Gregor Mendel
animal behavior types communicative, chemical, mating, courtship, feeding, parental, social, aggressive/territorial, dominant/submissive
2 main categories of behavior Acquired and innate ( learned and instinctive)
how do organisms respond to climate change migrate, acclimatize, genetic change (evolve),
altricial being born in an immature state relying exclusively on parental care during early development.
keystone spp a species whose role is essential of the functioning of a healthy ecosystem
Most abundant element on the universe H2 90%
major land biomes tundra (north hemisphere) taiga (boreal forest) temperate forest, tropical forest, grasslands, mountains, desert, chaparral, savanna
Definition of a desert less than 25cm of water per year
rate of ridge spreading 2,5cm/yr
(founder) uniformitarianism James Hutton
Ice ages period pleistocene
mineral inorganic naturally occurring solid at room temp definite chemical structure
3 types of sedimentary rock clastic chemical organic
main geologic principles uniformitarianism plate tectonics faunal succession
2 earthquake belts cirupacific ;alpine-Himalayan
marl vs peat marl- aerobic peat-anaerobic
other types of radiometric dating Carbon 14, potassium 40, uranium 235
frost wedging ice weathering
Karaman line 100km where outerspace "begins"
3 main weather cells hadley, ferrel, polar
hurricanes spin counterclockwise
rate of mountain range rise 1mm/yr
factors controlling climate latitude elevation nearby water topography vegetation prevailing winds
cryosphere components icesheets permafrost sea-ice glaciers
equator length ~40,000km
semi diurnal tide 2 highs and 2 lows
diurnal tide one high and one low
mixed tide 2 highs and 2 lows of unequal height
NASA Space goals ATM composition, weather, water cycle, CO2cycle and eco systems, earth surface and interior, climate change, societal benefit.
sun rotation 25/35 days
length of a solar cycle ~11 years
NASA Missions orbiting carbon observatory Aqua- H2O cycle and vegetation cover NuStar- maps regions of the sky including remnants of explosions GRAIL- map of the moon Cassini- explore Saturn and its moons
where is the asteroid belt between mars and jupiter
where is the scatter disk past the heliopause
where is the oort cloud spherical, surrounding the solar system starts about 7.5 trillion km out to about halfway into the solar system. source of long period comets
where is the kuiper belt past Neptune. source of short period comets
a stars lifetime is proportional to.. its mass/its luminosity
Star classification, letters MGK FABO (sun is a G)
How do telescopes work by capturing more light than the human eye can on it's own
1 parcect 3.26 lightyears (31 trillion km)
what type of light does the Spitzer telescope "see" infrared
what type of light does Chondra detect X-rays
what telescope is replacing the Hubble the James Webb ( it will also be able to detect infrared light)
mass the amount of matter in an object
conservation of charge charge is neither created nor destroyed
boyles law P*V=C
guy lussacs law P/T=C
most abundant element of Earth and second most O2 46.6% Si 27.7%
3 definitions of acids and bases Arrhenius hydroxide vs hydronium Bronstead-lowery Proton accept/donate Lewis (dot structures) electrons; donate accept
elementary charge 1.6X10^-19
1 coulomb 6.24X10^18 electrons
Electron orbital letters and names sharp principal diffuse fundamental
electron shells klmnopq
number of electrons per orbital s2 p8 d18 f32
Afbau principal fill lowest electron energy level first
which fills first the next s or the current d orbital the next s
Antoine Levosier conservation of mass
Dalton atom solid sphere (modern atomic theory)
Mendeleev periodic table
JJ thompson plum pudding, discovered electrons
Rutherford mini planets, discovered the nucleus
Bohr fixed orbits, discovered electron shells/energy levels
Broglie wave particle duality of electrons
Schrodinger wave probability function of electrons
naturally occurring elements the first 94
ionization energy the amount of energy required to remove one electron from one atom
electron affinity the amount of energy released when an electron as added to form a negative ion
4 types of bonds ionic covalent metallic hydrogen
ionic bond metal to non metal, electrons stolen
covalent bond nonmetal to nonmetal; sharing is caring
metal bond electron soup, slip n slide
hydrogen bond dipoles, opposites attract (weak bond)
contact forces spring, normal, tension, air resistance, friction, applied forces
at a distance forces strong and weak nuclear, gravity, elctromagnetic
weight f(grav)*mass
force mass * acceleration
acceleration definition change in speed over time (delta s/t)
momentum mass*velocity
work force*displacement; f*d*cos (theta)
mechanical advantage force out/force in ; resistance/effort
pressure force /area; 1N/1m^2
Avogadros number 6.022*10^23 atoms make a mole
current voltage/resistance I=V/R (ohms law)
power voltage*current (amp); work/time
acceleration formula net force/mass
watt volt*amp or Joules/second
voltage Joule/coulomb watt/amp
Joule 1N/1M
Amp 1coulomb/1second; watt/voltage
gravitational force is inversely proportional to M1*M2/d2 the product of the two masses divided by the square of the distance between them
factors affecting the intensity of sound waves density of the medium vibration of the medium wave speed amplitude
NM and THz of visible light 400-700nm and 430 and 750 THz
speed of light 299,792,458m/s
wave period how long it takes two successive wave to pass a certain point
4 north poles celestial, geographic, magnetic, instananeous
charge by induction charges move on an object when placed near another object
static electricity in a cloud wind rubs water particles rice and dust charging them by friction
resistance in a series circuit add up resistors
resistance in a parallel circuit product divided by their sum
age of the universe 13.7 billion
age of the Earth 4.6 billion
speed of sound 343m/s
density of saltwater ~1030 kg/m^3
density of fresh water 1000kg/m^3
full length of a year 365d 5h 46m 48 s
equator length 40,000km
thickness of the ATM 480km
number of cranial nerves and spinal nerves 12; 31
major latitude lines The Arctic Circle (66°N) The Tropic of Cancer (23° N) The Equator (0°) The Tropic of Capricorn (23°S) The Antarctic Circle (66°S)
rate of ridge spreading 5-9 cm/year
1AU ~150 million km
1 light year ~9.5 trillion km (9,460,730,472,580.8 kilometers)
Boyles law PV=C; P1V1=P2V2
magnetic properties attractive, repulsive, directive
Alfred Wegener proposed continental drift
thickness of continental crust ~32km
thickness of oceanic crust ~8km
1 coulomb 6.24 *10^18
1 ATM 1,013.25 millibars, one standard atmosphere, or 101.325 kilopascals.
soil forming factors rock type time vegetation landscape climate
types of faults normal reverse strike-slip
What determines density atomic mass of constituent atoms of a given compound
how do forces between particles behave at long and short distances? attract at long distances and repel at short distances
Earths five spheres cryosphere biosphere ATM geosphere hydrosphere
loess sediment deposited by wind
what is a native element? a mineral composed of only on element in nature e.g. gold
liquefaction occurs when a saturated or partially saturated soil substantially loses strength and stiffness in response to an applied stress; earthquake or other sudden change in stress , a solid material behaves like a liquid.
characteristics of a star ball of gas that emits light and heat
Kepler's laws of planetary motion elliptical orbit w/ sun as a focus planet always "sweeps out" the same area in its orbit (orbital period)^2= (distance from sun in AU)^3
newtons law of universal gravitation 1-all objects attract long distance 2-mass affects gravity which is proportional to the product of the masses 3- gravity is inverse to the square of the distance 4-gravity affects planetary motion
sun fusion steps 1- two protons combine and eject a "neutron">deuterium 2- deuterium and H combine and create helium 3>sunlight (gamma) 3-2 helium 3 combine to make helium 4>gamma rays and neutrons
slowest rotation speed in the universe venus 243 days
3 zones of the sun core radiative convective
main layers of suns ATM the photosphere, the chromosphere and the corona
cluster a place where galaxies are concentrated
critical mass the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
What type of uranium U235 must be separated from U238
alpha decay emit He
weapons grade 90%U235
How is plutonium239 made bombarding U238 with neutrons
how is U235 enriched gas and centrifuge
what is the critical mass for atoms 230
deposition gas turning into a solid
deflation all fine sediment has blown away leaving desert pavement
0 law of thermal dynamics if two systems are in equilibrium with a third system then they are also in equilibrium with each other
1 law of thermal dynamics conservation of matter end energy
2 law of thermal dynamics enthalpy=work+heat; entropy always increases no system is 100% efficient; some energy will be lost as heat
3 law of thermal dynamics absolute zero can't be reached; a system approaches a constant value as it approaches abs zero
potential energy eq PE=mass*gravity*height (weight*height)
kinetic energy 1/2 mv^2
coulombs law like charges repel and opposite charges attract, with a force proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
reactance resistance to a change in current or voltage
Norethers Theorem for every symmetry there exists a corresponding conservation law. i.e. there is a quantity that is constant; the laws of physics don't change over time
entropy tendency of matter to become evenly spread throughout the universe
angular momentum; linear momentum mv*(distance from center(radius);mv
SI Prefixes tera giga mega kilo hecto deca (base) deci centi mili micro nano pico
what percent of the EM spectrum is visible 1%
visible light angstroms 7000-4000A
how are gamma rays produced fusion fission alpha and gamma decay
how are X-rays produced by accelerating neutrons
two types of lenses convex concave
focal length the distance from a lens to its point of focus
Democritus posited atoms in 442 BC
Fla geography Fla is a limestone plateau with karst topography
respiration summary glycolysis >link reaction> krebs cycle> electron transport chain
relationships between organisms mutualism commensalism parasitism (predation, competition)
combined gas law P1-V1/T1=P2-V2/T2
polyatomic elements S P Se
diatomic elements Bron H Clif bromine oxygen nitrogen hydrogen chlorine iodine fluorine
short circuit allows current to travel along a path where there is essentially no resistance removing power from working components
tornadoes form when columns of warm air begin to rise quickly
gas chromatograph splits sample into components
spectroscope splits light into components
refracting vs reflecting focuses light vs change direction of light via mirrors
mRNA transported out of nucleus; transcription
acquired traits result from experience; not passed to offspring
N decomposers produce ammonia
moment and objects tenancy to spin; F*distance
denitrifying bacteria put N2 back in the ATM
possible ice age causes sulfur compound released into the ATM stratosphere mix with water to form sulfuric acid haze leading to a cooling trend
eons Hadean Archean Proterozoic Phanerozoic
eras precambrian paleaozoic mesozoic phanerozoic
periods precambrian cambrian ordovician silurian devonian carboniferous permian triassic jurassic cretaceous tertiary quaternary
ideal gas law PV=nRT n=moles of substance R=constant
combined gas law P1V1/T1=P2V2/V2
Adiabatic cooling is the process of reducing heat through a change in air pressure caused by volume expansion.
Adiabatic heating heating when it is compressed. Or. A change in the temperature of a material without addition of heat that happens when the pressure of a gas is increased
numbers in front of a elements symbol top number-number of protons and neutrons Bottom number-number of protons only
grams to moles number of grams of a compound/molar mass
molar mass number of atoms/atomic weight
brewster's law deals with the polarization of light
capacitance the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential. the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.
galaxy a large collection of stars gas and dust held together by gravity
efficiency measure of a how effective a machine is at converting energy into work
dimension analysis used to convert units
frequency cycles per second wave speed*wavelength
simple machines can multiply force and speed
age of the sun 4.8 billion years
Created by: Disinchanted
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