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Micro Ch. 10

TermDefinition
analgesics a medication capable of reducing or eliminating pain
anesthetic a substance that produces anesthesia, a state in which the conscious state of pain is blocked
antidote a remedy to counteract the effects of poison
bioassays an assay determining the biological activity or potency of a substance by testing its effect on a living organism
bioavailability the term used to indicate the extent to which a drug reaches its site of action
biotransported the transport of drugs across biological membranes
controlled substances act the federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, uses, and distribution of certain substances are regulated
diuretics a substance that promotes the excretion of urine
dosage the total amount of a drug given over a period of time
dose the amount of a drug given at a single time
effective concentration drug effectiveness that can be achieved by a single administration or after multiple administrations
enteral used to describe drugs administered via the digestive tract
experimental drugs drugs that have shown promise as a result of laboratory and animal testing but have not yet been approved for human testing
first-pass effect the biotransformation of a drug in the liver or gastrointestinal tract subsequent to oral administration and before entering the general circulation
latency the period of time between the time something has been initiated, and the time when the effect becomes detectable
orphan drugs those drugs needed to treat diseases affecting fewer than 200,000 U.S. patients, and that fail to receive attention for development primarily because of cost and perceived lack of need
parenteral describing the introduction of a substance into the body by means other than gastrointestinally or via the lungs
peak effect in pharmacology, occurs when receptors are maximally activated by a drug
pharamacodynamics addresses drug-induced responses of the physiological and biochemical systems of the body
pharamacokinetics addresses drug amounts at various sites in the body after their administration
pharmacotherapeutics addresses issues associated with the choice and application of drugs to be used for disease prevention, treatment, or diagnosis
pharmacy the preparation, compounding, dispensing of, and record keeping about therapeutic drugs
poisons any substance that is harmful to the body
prodrug a substance administered in an inactive form but that once administered is metabolized into an active form
side effects unintended, usually negative effect resulting from the pharmacologic treatment of disease
therapeutic index ratio comparing the drug dose that produces an undesired toxic effect with the dose that produces a desired positive (therapeutic) effect
toxic effect physiological or physical effect that is caused by a substance
toxicology study of the body's response to poisons, their harmful effects, mechanisms of action, symptoms, treatment, and identification
Created by: elmore00