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BJU Space/Earth - 7

BJU - Space and Earth Science - Chapter 7

TermDefinition
The Uniformitarian theory that all celestial objects, but especially those of the solar system, were formed by the gravitational accumulation of space dust. accretion theory
The point in the orbit of the moon or a man made satellite where it is farthest from Earth. apogee
Bright pinpoints of light that appear briefly during a total solar eclipse as sunlight shines through valleys around the moon's edge. Baily's beads
The naturalist theory that the moon was once a planet in its own orbit around sun but that the earth somehow deflected it into an orbit around the earth. capture theory
A pointed end of a crescent moon. cusp
During a total solar eclipse, the effect produced by a single Baily's bead flash occurring along the thin remaining solar crescent at the limb of the moon. It occurs immediately before or after totality in a solar eclipse. diamond ring effect
Sunlight reflected from the dark side of the moon that was originally reflected from the earth. earthshine
The initial speed an object must have in order to free itself from the gravitational pull of a planet or other celestial body. escape velocity
The phase of the moon when the western half of the moon is lighted and the eastern half is dark. first quarter
A naturalistic theory of the origin of the moon suggesting that somehow the moon split away from the earth when the earth was still molten. fission theory
A push or a pull exerted on an object. A force may be transmitted by contact between two objects (e.g. an impact) or exerted over a distance between objects (e.g. gravity). force
The lunar phase in which the moon's entire near side is lighted. full moon
The full moon nearest the autumnal equinox (about September 22 in the Northern Hemisphere). harvest moon
The next full moon after the harvest moon. hunter's moon
A naturalistic moon origin theory that suggests that matter in the moon was once a part of the earth, but a collision with another celestial object ejected matter from earth, which coalesced and went into orbit around the earth as the moon. impact theory
Same as third quarter. It is that phase of the moon in which the eastern half is lighted and the western half is dark. last quarter
The darkening of the full moon when it passes into the earth's shadow. lunar eclipse
A dark, flat lowland region on the moon's surface. mare
A measure of the amount of matter an object contains; not dependent on the force of gravity. mass
That phase of the moon when it is positioned in its orbit between the sun and the earth and is not visible because of the sun's glare. new moon
An eclipse in which the face of the sun is never fully covered, as observed at a particular location. partial eclipse
The point nearest the earth in the orbit of the moon or of an earth-orbiting satellite. perigee
Any of the bright streaks on the moon's surface radiating from some of the moon's craters. ray
Long, narrow, snaking valleys especially evident on the moon's surface. rill
An eclipse that occurs when the moon passes between the earth and the sun, blocking some or all of the sun's light to the earth at a given location. solar eclipse
The line dividing the lighted portion of a nonluminous celestial body from the dark portion. terminator
Same as last quarter. It is that phase of the moon in which the eastern half is lighted and the western half is dark. third quarter
An event where the direct (solar) or reflected (lunar) light from the sun as viewed by an observer at a given location is completely cut off by another astronomical body. total eclipse
The decreasing phase of the moon during the last week of the lunar cycle. waning crescent
The decreasing phase of the moon, following a full moon, when the illuminated disk gradually diminishes to the third quarter. waning gibbous
The increasing phase of the moon, during the week following anew moon, when its illuminated portion appears as a thin, gradually thickening crescent. waxing crescent
The increasing phase of the moon, during the second week following the first quarter, when the illuminated portion is gradually enlarging toward a full moon. waxing gibbous
Created by: marchscience
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