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Med Surg 3

Why can insulin not be taken orally? it is destroyed by the gi enzymes
The diet needed with myxedema High Fiber, Increase Fluids, Reduce calories
What does the oral hypoglycemia agent DiaBeta do? Increases insulin production
What does the oral hypoglycemia agent Biguanides do? reduces liver glucose production and improves glucose use
What does the oral hypoglycemia agent Metformin do? improves glycemic control, stabilizes/decreases body weight, improves lipid profile
What is a problem with lipodystrophy? Decreases absorption of insulin
What is the advantage of human insulin over animal? Human cases have fewer allergies
Teaching instructions for self monitoring blood glucose. Check in th emorning, wipe site, allow to dry, then stick, put blood on stick in monitor, apply bandaid to site
Why might a obese person develop diabetes? Cells get clooged with fat. Sugar cannot get into cells to burn. Pancreas cannot keep up, makes an inadequate supply
Patients at risk for Diabetes Mellitus Close relatives with DM, Baby over 9lbs.,Member of high risk ethnic population, gestational diabetes, obese, lazy, HTN, Lipoproteins, cholestrol level & triglycerides elevated
The result of diabetes mellitus Decrease in pancreas function, where decreased or no insulin is being produced
Diabetes Mellitus affects? eyes, kidneys, nervous & cv systems
What exercie is NOT done following removal of the thyroid? Coughing
A common medication used for a nonfunctioning thyroid? Synthroid
Possible injuries from parathyroid tumor possible fractures & kidney stones
How to conduct a check for Chvostek's sign? tap facial nerve, will be a spasm of facial muscle.
A symptom of Addison's disease Skin bronze over knees, elbows, knuckles
A symptom of Pheochromocytoma hypertension- systolic 200-300;diastolic above 150
Symptoms of diabetes mellitus High bllod sugar, polyuria, polydipsia, recuurent infections, obesity, fatigue, blurred vision, parasthesia
What is the meaning of an elevated FBS? common after 8 hrs., increases 126mg. this test does not say you are diabetic. it tells you if you are using glucose in the blood properly.
2 hr post prandial test Is given 2 hrs after meal, most accurate
Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HgB A1c) tells glucocontrol over 3 months. Glucose ties onto tail of hgb- sugar is sticky.
What is called the master gland? Pituitary
Why is the Pituitary gland called the master gland? It helps regulate many functions of other glands.
What is acromegaly? Hypersecretion of GH during adulthood
Signs & symptoms of acromegaly? enlargement of bones & connective tissue-Big Hands, big feet, forehead, protruding jaw
What to look for in a simple Goiter? difficulty swallowing
Prevention of a simple goiter? Use iodine salt
What causes a Simple Goiter? TH production decreases, thyroid enlarges- attempt to produce more hormone. Iodine is necessary for TH synthesis & secretion
What is the purpose of preoperative iodine drug therapy for a thyroidectomy? to decrease vascularity & size of gland to reduce bleeding during surgery
What equipment should be on hand for the post op thyroidectomy? Suction equipment, trach set, O2, Iv calcium gluconate
Diet for Hyperthyroidism? Hi-calorie, protein, CHO,calcium
How many meals a day should someone with Hyperthyroidism eat? 6 small meals a day & snacks
what in the diet should a person with Hyperthyroidism avoid? High fiber, high spicy that would increase peristalsis
What to teach a patient with Addison's Crisis Avoid Stress, Increase fluids, diet high in sodium and low in potassium, dont skip meals, wear medic alert braclet.
What causes Addison's crisis If meds are stopped abruptly, stress, surgery, trauma
Functions of epinephrine & norepinephrine? stimulation of sympathetic nervous system (alters CNS)
A common complaint for hypothyroidism? Constipation
The primary assessment with Diabetes Insipidus Output 5-15L/day, Wt loss, polyuria, polydyspnea look for s/s of dehydration-weak
The technique used with Vasopressin (DDAVP) via nasal spray? Inhale with each spray
What is the technique to mix insulins in syringe? Put air in cloudy, air in clear, draw up clear, then cloudy
Regular meal times are important for a diabetic why? Prevent hypoglycemia
Why is it important for a diabetic to exercise and why should they also use caution when doing so? It increases glucose used by the muscle, decreases need for insulin, Chl,triglycerides, improves circulation, caution used --- blood sugar may drop to rapidly with heavy exercise
What causes Diabetic Ketoacidosis? Neglect or ignorance characterized by hyperglycemia or coma, in person with untreated type 1 diabetes, occurs with periods of eccesive physical, emotional stress, illness, or infection
S/S of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Thirst, Dry mucous membranes, Hot dry skin, flushed face, n/v, poor skin turgor, looks & feels sick, sweet fruity breath odor, Kussmuals respirations.
The importance of personal hygiene for those with diabetes mellitus Prevent complications- circ. problems, atherosclerosis
How to minimize complications for diabetics? Good control of blood sugar, diet meds, take meds properly, go to DR., wt management
Difficulties for one diagnosed with Diabetic renopathy? Hard time to take care of self, foot care, food prep, high risk for falls
what is the leading cause of blindness between the ages of 25-74? Diabetic Renopathy
When does teaching start? day of admission
Teaching selfcare to diabetics Knowledge of all aspects, home environment, family, finances, teach insulin reactions, how to self check and self administer
What is responsible for producing excessive amounts of hormone cortisol. Adrenal Cortex
Noral Blood Glucose Level 80-120
Cushings disease has to much? Cortisol
Aldostrone when is it released? When blood volume falls tells kidneys to hold on to salt & water
Pheochromocytoma benign tumor in adrenal medulla
Risk for Corneal Abrasions tape eyelids shut at night, artifical tears
Insufficient amount of Thyroid Hormone Hypothyroidism
what to check with Hypoparathyroidism? Chvostek sign
Increased Parathyroid disorder Calcium levels go from bones to blood. causing hypercalcemia also cause osteoperosis
What is the most common cause of Hyperthyroidism? Graves Disease
Symptoms of Graves disease? prtruding eyes (exophthalmos), upper lip retracted, pt will have excitability.
Necessary for proper functioning of the thyroid Iodine
Increased calcium blood levels Parathyroid
Secretes digestive enzymes and releases insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream Pancreas
Regulates temperature, fluid volume, and growth Hypothalamus
Produces Insulin Islets of Langerhans
Produces hormones known as catecholamines Adrenal medulla
Reduces excess calcium in the blood Thyroid
A counterregulatory hormone Ephinephrine
Reduces excess calcium in the blood Thyroid
Results from antidiuretic hormone insufficiency Addison's Disease
Stimulates the hypersecretion of growth hormone that causes acromegaly Pituitary adenoma
Concentration of particles in the blood Osmolarity
Caused by an excess production of antidiuretic hormone SIADH
Caused by inadequate production of growth hormone Dwarfism
Hyperthyroidism Grave's Disease
Excessive production of thyroid hormone Hyperthyroidism
Insufficient amounts of adrenal cortex hormones Diabetes Insipidus
Common cause of primary hypothyroidism Thyroiditis
Occurs with reduced calcium in the blood Tetany
Morning rise of blood glucose after low levels at night Somogyi effect
Insufficient insulin production Type2
The organ that produces digestive enzymes and regulates the amount of glucose in the blood is called? Pancreas
What releases inslulin into the bloodstream islets of Langerhans
Glycogen is converted into glucose in a process know as glycogenolysis
The loss of fluid from extracellular compartments is called osmotic diuresis
The condition know as polyuria suggests that there is an excessive production of urine
A type of phenomenon in which the blood sugar levels rise between 5am and 8am is called dawn phenomenon
The classic three p's of diabetes mellitus are polyuria,polydipsia,polyphagia
Created by: Cbilletter