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A&P Week 4 Quiz 3

Masterbooks Intro to A&P Volume 1

TermDefinition
bone marrow helps to create red and white blood cells
blood cells help fight bacterial infections
rib cage a protective shield for the heart and lungs and provides a sturdy space into which your lungs expand
hematopoiesis most of our blood cells are formed by this process in the marrow cavities of the many bones of the body
blood cells they die rapidly, many living only for days or months, and need to be replaced
long bones bones that are longer than they are wide
short bones bones about as wide as they are long
flat bones thin bones either long or short, and usually curved
sesamoid bones bones that are small and round
irregular bones bones that cannot easily be placed in the other categories
medullary in the middle
epiphysis the rounded, broader end of a long bone (the joint end(
periosteum the outermost layer of bone, which is a thin, fibrous membrane
compact bone the is beneath the periosteum, and is a dense, thick layer
spongy bone the innermost part of the bone that is like a sponge or a honeycomb
osteo the Greek word for "bone"
osteocyte a mature bone cell
osteoblast an immature cell or a bone-building cell
osteoclasts break down bone
osteon the basic unit of compact bone
circumferential lamellae the outer layer of compact bone that is made up of very large rings of ground substance and osteocytes
trabeculae the struts observed in spongy bones
epiphyseal plate bones grow in this area
chondrocytes these cells are what makes cartilage
human growth hormone (hGH) helps regulate bone growth
rickets a bone disease in children that is the result of a deficiency of vitamin D
calcitonin a hormone released by the thyroid when calcium levels in the body get too high
osteoporosis a disease, primarily of the elderly, that results in bones that are very fragile
arthritis inflammation of one or more joints
osteoarthritis joint cartilage gradually deteriorates, resulting in pain, swelling, and restricted motion in the joints affected
rheumatoid arthritis a person's own immune system attacks the body's own tissues, often the joints of smaller bones