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glossary terms chapter 1

Accuracy the quality or state of being correct
Aim a statement describing in detail what will be investigated
Bar graph a graph that shows the value of the dependant variable by the length of the horizontal bar; the categories are labelled up the y-axis
Column graph a graph that shows the value of the dependant variable by the height of the column; the categories are labelled across the x-axis
Continuous variable a variable that can have any number value within a given range
Control group the experimental conditions of the control group are identical to those of the experimental group, except that the variable of interest (IV) is kept constant
Controlled variable the variables that are kept constant during the investigation
Dependant variable a variable that must change in response to a change in the IV, and is measured or observed
Discrete variable seperate or distinct values that can be counted
Error the difference between the true value and the measured value
Experimental group controlled (fixed) variables are kept constant, a single experimental (IV) variable is changed and the dependant variable is measured to determine the effect of the change
Exponential relationship variables that are exponentially proportional to each other will produce a curved trend line when graphed
First-hand data the measurements or observations that you collect during your investigation
Hypothesis a possible explanation to a research question that can be used to make predictions that can often be tested experimentally
Independent variable the variable that is altered during an experiment to test its effects on another variable. Also called the experimental variable
Inference something that is inferred
Inverse relationship a mathematical relationship in which one variable increases as the other increases
Line graph a type of graph that is useful for representing continuous quantitative data
Linear relationship a mathematical relationship in which variables are directly proportional to each other and produce a straight trend line when graphed
Mean the average value of a set of values, calculated by dividing the sum of the values by a number of values
Median the value in the middle of an ordered list of values
Meniscus the curved upper surface of liquid in a tube, caused by surface tension. A meniscus can be concave, or convex
Mode the value that appears most often in a data set
Nominal variable a categorical variable in which there is inherent order; they can be counted or ordered
Observation closely monitoring something or someone
Ordinal variable a categorical variable in which there is an inherent order; they can be counted or ordered
Outlier a value that lies outside the main group of data of which it is apart
Peer-reviewed other scientists have checked the information and have agreed that it is appropriate for publication
Pie chart a circular diagram divided into sections, with each section representing the value of one set of data as a proportion of the total data set, useful for presenting qualitative and categorical data
Precision the ability to consistently obtain the same value
Primary source a source that includes first-hand information, such as the results of an original experiment
Principle more specific then a theory
Processed data data that has been mathematically manipulated in some way
Qualitative data data collected about categorical values
Quantitative data data collected about numerical values
Random selection a form of sampling in which subjects are randomly selected to participate in a study
Range the difference between the highest and lowest values
Reliability the ability to consistently reproduce results
Repeat trials collecting multiple data sets by performing an experiment again after the initial test
Replication experimentation carried out on duplicate sets at the same time
Research questions a statement that defines what is being investigated
Risk assessment a systematic way of identifying the potential risks associated with an activity
Safety data sheet a document that contains important information about the possible hazards in using a substance and how the substance should be handled and stored
Scatterplot a graph in which two variables are plotted as points. Used when looking to see if there is a correlation or relationship between two quantitative variables
Scientific method the experimental approach to the study of science that involves formulating a hypothesis, designing and performing an experiment to test the hypothesis, and analysing whether the results support or refute the hypothesis
Secondary source a resource that interprets primary documents, written after the event by a person who was not a witness to the event
Second-hand data data you have not collected yourself
Theory when, after many experiments, a hypothesis has been supported by all the results so far, it is referred to as a theory or principle
Uncertainty the range of values within which the true value of a measured quality probably occurs. Is caused by random and systematic errors
Valid how strong your results are
Variable a factor or condition that can change during your experiment
Created by: emmawalton05
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