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BIOLOGY GLOSSARY 7

glossary terms chapter 7

QuestionAnswer
Adaptive immunity an immune response that is specific to a particular antigen, only present in vertebrates
Aggluination the process in which antibodies bind to antigens on the surface of cells and form antigen-antibody complexes that clump together and activate phagocytes and the complementary cascade, which leads to antigen/cell destruction
Allergen an antigen that elicits an allergic response
Anitbody also known as immunoglobulins, antibodies are proteins produced by plasma cells that are highly selective for, and bind to, specific antigen molecules
Antigen a substance that reacts with antibodies and T lymphocyte receptors; antigens that induce an immune response are immunogens
Antigen-antibody complex a specific chemical interaction between an antibody (immunoglobulin) molecule and an antigen molecule
Antigen presentation the presentation of antigens by antigen-presenting cells
Antigen-presenting cell a cell that uses MHC-II on its surface to present foreign antigens to helper T lymphocytes to elicit an adaptive immune response. Examples include dendritic cells and macrophages
Antigenic variation the mechanism of changing surface antigens, usually to avoid detection or immune attacks. Employed by certain protozoans such as plasmodium sp.
Cell-mediated immunity an immune response that is mediated by T lymphocytes
Cellular pathogens cellular organisms that are a source of non-self antigens and cause disease. These include bacteria, protozoa, oomycytes, fungi, several types of worms, and arthropods
Chemokine cytokines that attract white blood cells to the site of infection
Clonal selection the theory that in a group of lymphocytes, a specific antigen will activate only the lymphocyte that has a receptor that specifically recognises it. This lymphocyte will proliferate into clones of itself
Complement proteins proteins that are able to kill foreign cells by lysis. There are over 30 types, activated in response to anitgen-antibody complexes, antigens and carbohydrates on the surfaces of some bacteria and parasites
Constant region the region of antibody molecules that remains the same and interacts with receptors on the body's cells
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte T lymphocyte that is stimulated by cytokines to bind to antigen-MHC I complexes on infected host cells and release cytotoxic compounds that destroy the infected cells
Defensins molecules active against bacteria, fungi and certain viruses
Fever an increase in body temperature that results from the regulated body temperature set point in the hypothalamus of the brain being set to a higher level by inflammatory cytokines, to slow the replication of bacteria and improve the adaptive immune response
Heavy chains the polypeptide chain that forms the 'stem' of a y-shaped antibody molecule
Helper T lymphocyte helper T lymphocytes bind to antigen- MHC II complexes on antigen presenting cells and activate B lymphocytes to secrete antibodies, macrophages and phagocytose, and cytotoxic T cells to kill infected cells
Histamine an organic compound involved in inflammatory responses ad allergic reactions, which causes surface blood vesicles to dilate and become more permeable to immune cells and fluids. Common hay-fever symptoms are the result of histamine action
Humoral immunity an immune response involving B lymphocytes that produce specific antibodies against foreign antigens
Immunogens antigens that elicit an immune response
Immunoglobulin alternate name for an antibody
Immunological memory the ability of lymphocytes of adaptive immune systems to 'remember' antigens after primary exposure, and mount to a larger and more rapid response when exposed to the same antigen again
Inflammation a protective response triggered by damaged tissue or invading pathogens that leads to increased blood flow and migration of white blood cells to the site of damage/infection. It results in heat, pain, swelling, redness, and loss of function
Innate immunity non-specifically protects against a wide variety of pathogens, It consists of physical, chemical and microbiological barriers that provides resistance to infection, and an innate immune response to infection that involves phagocytes & defensive molecules
Leukocyte white blood cells; includes phagocytes and lymphocytes
Light chain the short polypeptide chains that form the 'arms' of a Y shaped antibody molecule
Lymph a colourless fluid that contains white blood cells, bathes tissues, and travels through the lymphatic system, draining into the bloodstream
Lymphatic system the body system that transports immune cells including antigen-presenting cells throughout the body, and is where antigen recognition by lymphocytes occurs; important for adaptive immune responses in mammals
Lymphocyte a type of leukocyte involved in the adaptive immune responses; includes B and T lymphocytes
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) a group of MHC proteins on the surface of cells, involved in antigen presentation to T cells. MHC proteins are known as human leukocyte antigens
Mast cell an immune cell containing granules of histamine. This cell mediates allergic responses by binding IgE-allergen complexes and releasing histamines
Memory B lymphocyte B lymphocytes activated against a specific antigen that remains in the lymphoid tissues for a long time, and permit a faster and more effective secondary immune response if the same antigen is encountered again
Memory T lymphocyte T lymphocytes activated against a specific antigen that remains in the lymphoid tissues for a long time, and permit a faster and more effective secondary immune response if the same antigen is encountered again
Neutralisation the binding of neutralising antibodies to toxins or antigens on the outer surface of pathogens that inhibits their action or ability to enter cells
Non-self antigen antigens that do not belong to an organisms' own cells
Pathogen an organism that can produce disease in another organism; includes many micro-organisms and parasites
Phagocyte cells capable of engulfing pathogens or foreign particles to destroy them
Plasma cell activated B-lymphocytes that produce large quantities of the same type of antibody
Primary immune response the immune response to an antigen that has been encountered for the first time
Primary lymphoid organ the major organs of the lymphatic system: the bone marrow and the thymus
Prion a small protein particle that, when its shape is altered due to mutation, causes protein aggregation and is toxic to neurons. Prions are the cause of spongiform encephalopathy diseases, BSE in cattle, and CJD in humans
Secondary immune response the immune response to an antigen that has previously been encountered and which elicited a primary immune response. The process activates memory cells and so is faster and more effective than the primary response
Secondary lymphoid organs and tissues the organs and tissues of the lymphatic system in which adaptive immune responses initiate: the lymph nodes, spleen tonsils, adnoids, and appendix
Self-antigen an organisms own antigens, which are normally tolerated (do not elicit an immune response)
Self-tolerance the inability of the adaptive immune system to respond to self-antigen
T-cell receptor a molecule found on the surface of T lymphocytes that is responsible for recognising fragments of antigen as peptide bounds to MHC proteins. It is made up of two polypeptide chains that have a variable and a constant region & only one antigen-binding site
Variable region the region of an antibody molecule that varies between different antibodies and allows them to interact with different antigens
Virus an infectious agent composed of genetic material (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat, and sometimes also a lipoprotein envelope; is only able to multiply in a host cell
Created by: emmawalton05